Fermentative losses and chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of corn grain silage rehydrated with water or acid whey combined with bacterial-enzymatic inoculant

Fernanda Naiara Fogaça da Cruz, Flávio Pinto Monção, Vicente Ribeiro Rocha Júnior, Amanda Maria Silva Alencar, João Paulo Sampaio Rigueira, Ariadne Freitas Silva, Renan Lucas Miorin, Ana Cláudia Maia Soares, Cinara da Cunha Siqueira Carvalho, Carlos Juliano Brant Albuquerque


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of rehydration with water or acid whey, as well as the effects of bacterial-enzymatic inoculant on fermentation losses, aerobic stability, and chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of corn grain silages. The treatments consisted of corn kernels (Zea mays) ground through a 3-mm sieve and rehydrated with chlorine-free water or unsalted whey (NaCl) combined or not with bacterial-enzymatic inoculant. This was a 2 x 2 factorial completely randomized design with sources of rehydration (water or whey) and absence and presence of bacterial-enzymatic inoculant with eight replications. Water and acid whey were added to ground corn with 12% moisture in order to increase it to 35%. Rehydrated corn was ensiled in Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) minisilos and stored for 60 d. The bacterial-enzymatic inoculant used was composed of Lactobacillus curvatus, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. buchneri, L. lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Enterococcus faecium, in concentrations of 1010 CFU g-1 and 5% cellulose-based enzyme complex. The aerobic exposure of silages was evaluated for 120 hours. There was interaction (P = 0.02) between the sources of rehydration and the use or not of the inoculant on the values of silage temperature during aerobic exposure. There was a difference for dry matter (DM) losses (P=0.38) between rehydrated corn silages with and without inoculant. DM losses were 37.51% higher in silage without inoculant compared to silage with inoculant (3.84% DM). There was no difference between the sources of rehydration on DM losses (P = 0.39), with a mean value of 4.99%. Corn rehydration using acid whey (P < 0.01) increased 2.19% and 31.36% DM and ash content compared to water, an average of 66.14% and 1.28%, respectively. There was no interaction (P = 0.30) between the sources of rehydration and the use of inoculants on the in vitro digestibility of DM (mean of 79.26%). The use of the bacterial-enzymatic inoculant improved the fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability and nutritional value of corn grain silage rehydrated with water or whey.


Aerobic stability; Dry matter recovery; Rehydrated corn grain silage; acid whey; Fermentation.

Full Text:



Ashbell, G., Weinberg, Z. G., Hen, Y., & Filya, Y. (2002). The effects of temperature on the aerobic stability of wheat and corn silages. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 28(5), 261-263. doi: 10.1038/sj/jim/7000237

Ávila, N. R. B., Dias e Silva, N. C., Leite, R. F., Barbosa, L. A., Florentino, L. A., & Rezende, A. V. (2019). Caracterização da silagem de grão de milho reidratado associado ao resíduo de tilápia. Ciência Animal Brasileira, 20(e-50220), 1-12. doi: 10.1590/1089-6891v20e-50220

Bernardes, T. F., & Rêgo, A. C. (2014). Study on the practices of silage production and utilization on Brazilian dairy farms. Journal of Dairy Science, 97(3), 1852-1861. doi: 10.3168/jds.2013-7181

Castro, L. P., Pereira, M. N., Dias, J. D. L., Lage, D. V. D., Barbosa, E. F., Melo, R. P.,... Pereira, R. A. N. (2019). Lactation performance of dairy cows fed rehydrated and ensiled corn grain differing in particle size and proportion in the diet. Journal of Dairy Science, 102(11), 9857-9869. doi: 10.3168/jds.2019-16 559

Daniel, J. L. P., Bernardes, T. B., Jobim, C. C., Schmidt, P., & Nussio, L. G. (2019). Production and utilization of silages in tropical areas with focus on Brazil. Grass and Forage Science, 74(2), 188-200. doi: 10.1111/gfs.12417

Detmann, E., Souza, M. A., Valadares, S. C., F., Queiroz, A. C., Berchielli, T. T., Saliba, E. O. S.,... Azevedo, J. A. G. (2012). Métodos para análise de alimentos. Visconde do Rio Branco, MG: Suprema.

Ferraretto, L. F., Silva, W. I., F., Fernandes, T., Kim, D. H., & Sultana, H. (2018). Effect of ensiling time on fermentation profile and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in rehydrated corn with or without varied concentrations of wet brewers grains. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(5), 4643-4649. doi: 10.3168/jds. 2017-14329

Hammer, O., Harper, D. A. T., & Ryan, P. D. (2001). PAST: Paleontological Statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontol Electronica, 4(1), 1-9. Retrieved from https://palaeo-electronica. org/2001_1/past/past.pdf

Hoffman, P. C., Esser, N. M., Shaver, R. D., Coblentz, W. K., Scott, M. P., Bodnar, A. L., Schmidt, R. J., & Charley, R. C. (2011). Influence of ensiling time and inoculation on alteration of the starch protein matrix in high-moisture corn. Journal of Dairy Science, 94(5), 2465-2474. doi: 10.3168/jds.2010-3562

Jacovaci, F. A., Salvo, P. A. R., Jobim, C. C., & Daniel, J. L. P. (2021). Effect of ensiling on the feeding value of flint corn grain for feedlot beef cattle: A meta-analysis. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 50(1), e20200111. doi: 10.37496/rbz5020200111

Jesus, M. A., Monção, F. P., Rigueira, J. P., Rocha, V. R., Jr., Gomes, V. M., Delvaux, N. A., Jr.,... Santos, A. S. (2021). Effects of microbial inoculant and fibrolytic enzymes on fermentation quality and nutritional value of BRS capiaçu grass silage. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 43(3), 1-10. doi: 10.5433/16 79-0359.2021v42n3Supl1p1837

Jobim, C. C., Nussio, L. G., Reis, R. A., & Schmidt, P. (2007). Avanços metodológicos na avaliação da qualidade de forragem conservada. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 36(1), 101-119. doi: 10.1590/S15 16-35982007001000013.

Johnson, R. A. E., & Wichern, W. D. (2007). Applied multivariate statistical analysis (6nd ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall.

Junges, D., Morais, G., Spoto, M. H. F., Santos, P. S., Adesogan, A. T., Nussio, L. G., & Daniel, J. L. P. (2017). Short communication: influence of various proteolytic sources during fermentation of re-constituted corn grain silages. Journal of Dairy Science, 100(11), 9048-9051. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-12 943

Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20(1), 141-151. doi: 10.1177/001316446002000116

Kung, L., Jr., Shaver, R. D., Grant, R. J., & Schmidt, R. J. (2018). Silage review: interpretation of chemical, microbial, and organoleptic components of silages. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(1), 4020-4033. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-13909

Martínez, J. R. P. F., Huerta, A. G., López, D. J. P., Cuevas, R. S., Salem, A. Z. M., Robles-Jimenez, L. E. & Gonzalez-Ronquillo, M. (2020). Effect of xylanase, cellulase and natural maguey extract on the chemical composition of corn silage and in vitro rumen gas production. International Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 47(1), 23-34. doi: 10.7764/ijanr.v47i1.2128

Mombach, M. A., Pereira, D. H., Pina, D. S., Bolson, D. C., & Pedreira, B. C. (2019). Silage of rehydrated corn grain. Arquivo Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 71(3), 959-966. doi: 10.1590/1678-4162-9676.

Muck, R. E., Nadeau, M. G., McAllister, T. A., Contreras-Govea, F. E., Santos, M. C., &, Kung, L., Jr. (2018). Silage review: recent advances and future uses of silage additives. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(5), 3980-4000. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-13839

National Research Council (2001). Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle (7nd rev. ed.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Pahlow, G., Muck, R. E., Driehuis, F., Oude- Elferink, S. J. W. H., & Spoelstra, S. F. (2003). Microbiology of ensiling. In D. R. Buxton, R. E. Muck, & J. H. Harrison (Eds.), Silage science and technology (pp. 31- 93). Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy.

Rezende, A. V., Rabelo, C. H. S., Sampaio, L. M., Härter, C. J., Lorentino, L. A., Paula, D. W., & Braga, T. C. (2016). Ensiling a dry bakery by-product: effect of hydration using acid whey or water associated or not at urea. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal, 17(4), 626-641. doi: 10.1590/S1519-9940 2016000400007

Rezende, A. V., Rabelo, C. H. S., Veiga, R. M., Andrade, L. P., Härter, C. J., Rabelo, F. H. S.,... Reis, R. A. (2014). Rehydration of corn grain with acid whey improves the silage quality. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 197(1), 213-221. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.07.009

Silva, C. M., Amaral, P. N. C., Baggio, R. A., Tubin, J. S. B., Conte, R. A., Pivo, J. C. D.,... Paiano, D. (2016). Estabilidade de silagens de grãos úmidos de milho e milho reidratado. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Produção Animal, 17(3), 331-343. doi: 10.1590/S1519-99402016000300001

Silva, N. C., Nascimento, C. F., Nascimento, F. A., Resende, F. D., Daniel, J. L. P., & Siqueira, G. R. (2018). Fermentation and aerobic stability of rehydrated corn grain silage treated with different doses of Lactobacillus buchneri or a combination of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(5), 4158-4167. doi: 10.3168/jds.2017-13797

Tilley, J. M. A., & Terry, R. A. (1963). A two-stage technique for the in vitro digestion of forage crops. Journal of the British Grassland Society, 18(2), 104-111. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2494.1963.tb00335.x

Valadares, S. C., F., Costa e Silva, L. F., Giobelle, M. P., Rotta, P. P., Marcondes, M. I., Chizzotti, M. L., & Prados, L. F. (2016). Exigências nutricionais de zebuínos puros e cruzados (3a ed.). Recuperado de https://brcorte.com.br/livro2016br.

Valente, T. N. P., Detmann, E., Queiroz, A. C., Valadares, S. C., F., Gomes, D. I., & Filgueiras, J. F. (2011). Evaluation of rumen degradation profiles of forages using bags made from different textiles. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 40(11), 2565-2573. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982011001100039

Zinn, R. A., Owens, F. N., & Ware, R. A. (2002). Flaking corn: Processing mechanics, quality standards, and impacts on energy availability and performance of feedlot cattle. Journal Animal Science, 80(5), 1145-1156. doi: 10.2527/2002.8051145x

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2021v42n6p3497

Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359
E-mail: semina.agrarias@uel.br
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional