Initial performance of ‘Gem’ avocado trees in the Central-Western region of São Paulo State

Lígia Broglio Micheletti, Tatiana Cantuarias Avilés, Edypol Guilherme Baptista, Mariana Freire Alberti, Guilherme Nacata, Bruna do Amaral Brogio, Simone Rodrigues da Silva

Abstract


The introduction of new avocado cultivars into producing countries of the Southern Hemisphere may extend the offer period of fresh fruit for export. The ‘Gem’ (‘3-29-5’) avocado is known for extending the marketing period of ‘Hass’-like avocados. This study aimed to evaluate the horticultural performance of ‘Gem’ avocado trees between the 4th and 6th years after planting (2016-2018), in a commercial orchard in the Central-Western region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. ‘Gem’ avocado trees grafted onto seedling rootstocks were evaluated regarding tree size, shoot growth, flowering, and fruit yield, quality and maturation. In the evaluated biennium, the trees showed a strong upright growth habit and compact tree size. Flowering occurred mainly in indeterminate inflorescences. Fruit yield varied between 106.89 to 116.89 kg tree-1, and 75-91% of the fruit classified within size counts 12 (306 to 365 g/fruit) to 18 (211 to 235 g/fruit), and reached physiological maturity in late June, but could be picked until October, i.e, four to eight months later than ‘Hass’. ‘Gem’ is a new alternative for extending fruit offer of late-maturity avocado cultivars and allowing higher profit to the farmers.

Keywords


lowering; ‘Hass’-like avocados; Persea americana Mill; Vegetative growth; Yield.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alcaraz, M. L., Thorp, T. G., & Hormaza, J. I. (2013). Phenological growth stages of avocado (Persea americana) according to the BBCH scale. Scientia Horticulture, 164(2013), 434-439. doi: 10.1016/j. scienta.2013.09.051

Aldana, A. S., Longas, F. F., & Lozano, J. G. (2010). Postcosecha y transformación del aguacate. Colômbia: Corpoica.

Arpaia, M. L., & Menge, J. A. (2004). Enhancement of avocado productivity. Plant improvement - selection and evaluation of improved varieties and rootstocks. Anais do Seminario Internacional de Paltos, Quillota, Chile, 2.

Arpaia, M. L., Bender, G. S., Francis, L., Menge, J. A., Shepherd, J. S., & Smothers, V. W. (2013). Avocado production in California: a cultural handbook for growers. San Diego: University of California Cooperative Extension San Diego County and California Avocado Society.

Bekker, T. F. (2012). The effect of avocado consumer preferences and behaviour on the global commercialization of new avocado horticultural intellectual property. Gauteng: Research Report, University of South Africa. Recovered from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1d60/d0d82d58ef73eb0 e06115 ad65e3373dfd795.pdf

Blakey, R. J., Van-Rooyen, Z., Köhne, J. S., Malapana, K. C., Mazhawu, E., Tesfay, S. Z., & Savage, M. J. (2015). Growing avocados under shade netting in South Africa. Proceedings of Congreso Mundial de la Palta, Lima, Peru, 8.

Bruwer, A. T. (2007). Evaluation of the Hass-like avocado cultivars Harvest, Gem and Grace. South African Avocado Growers’ Association Yearbook, 30, 32-33. Recovered from http://www.avocadosource.com/ Journals/SAAGA/ SAAGA_2007/SAAGA_2007_V30_PGS_32-33_Bruwer.pdf

Bruwer, A. T., & Mokgalabone, M. L. (2005). Evaluation of the hass-like avocado cultivars harvest, gem and grace at westfalia technological services. South African Avocado Growers’ Association Yearbook, 28, 50-51. Recovered from http://www.avocadosource.com/Journals/SAAGA/SAAGA_2005/SAAGA_200 5_V28_PGS_50-51_Bruwer.pdf

Centro de Pesquisas Meteorológicas e Climáticas Aplicadas a Agricultura (2016). Clima dos municípios paulistas: Arealva. Recuperado de http://www.cpa.unicamp.br/outras-informacoes/clima_muni_040. html

Crane, J. H., Douhan, G., Faber, B. A., Arpaia, M. L., Bender, G. S., Balerdi, C. F., & Barrientos-Priego, A. F. (2015). Cultivares y portainjertos. In B. Schaffer, B. N. Wolstenholme, & A. W. Whiley (Eds.), El Aguacate: botânica, producción y usos (pp. 243-282). Valparaíso: Ediciones Universitarias de Valparaíso.

Cristoffanini, L. P. (1996). Caracterización de la floración en paltos (Persea americana Mill) cvs. Fuerte, Gwen, Whitsell y Esther. Quillota, Chile: Taller de Licenciatura, Universidad Católica de Valparaíso.

Dixon, J., Cotterell, C., Hofstee, B., & Elmsly, T. A. (2008). University of California avocado cultivars ‘Lamb Hass’ and ‘Gem’ maturity and fruit quality results from New Zealand’s evaluation trials. New Zealand Avocado Growers Association Annual Research Report, 8, 15-26. Recovered from http://www. avocadosource.com/journals/nzaga/nzaga_2008/NZAGA_2008_02.pdf

Duarte, P. F., Chaves, M. A., Borges, C. D., & Mendonça, C. R. B. (2016). Avocado: characteristics, health benefits and uses. Ciência Rural, 46(1), 747-754. doi: 10.1590/0103-8478cr20141516

Fischer, I. H., Tozze, H. J., Jr., Arruda, M. C., & Massola, N. S., Jr. (2011). Pós-colheita de abacates ‘Fuerte’ e ‘Hass’: características físicas químicas, danos e controle de doenças. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 32(1), 209-220. doi: 10.5433/1679-0359.2011v32n1p209

Food and Agriculture Organization (2020). Food and agricultural commodities production. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/faostat/en/#home

Hofman, P. J., Fuchs, Y., & Milne, D. L. (2002). Harvesting, packing, postharvest technology, transport and processing. In A. W. Whiley, B. Schaffer, & B. N. Wolstenholme (Eds.), The avocado: botany, production and uses (pp. 363-402). Wallingford: CAB International Press.

Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (2018). Dados históricos anuais. Recuperado de https://bdmep inmet. gov.br/

Mazhawu, E. (2016). The effect of shadenetting on ‘3-29-5’ avocado production under subtropical conditions. Master’s thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

Mickelbart, M. V., Bender, G. S., Witney, G. W., Adams, C., & Arpaia, M. L. (2007). Effects of clonal rootstocks on ‘Hass’ avocado yield components, alternate bearing and nutrition. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 82(3), 460-466. doi: 10.1080/14620316.2007.11512259

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2004). International standardisation: avocados. Recovered from http://www.oecd.org/tad/code/46590985.pdf

Salata, M., & Sampaio, A. C. (2008). Abacate: aspectos técnicos da produção. São Paulo: Cultura Acadêmica.

Sentelhas, P. C., Piza, C. T., Jr., Alfonsi, R. R., Kavati, R., & Soares, N. B. (1995). Zoneamento climático da época de maturação do abacate no Estado de São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Agrometeorologia, 3, 133-140. doi: 10.1590/0100-2945-286/13

Stones, W. A., Van-Rooyen, Z., & Köhne, J. S. (2017). Growing avocados under shade netting. South African Avocado Growers’ Association Yearbook, 40, 123-128. Recovered from http://www. avocadosource.com/Journals/SAAGA/SAAGA_2017/SAAGA_2017_40_PG_123.pdf

Van-Rooyen, Z. (2011). New developments in horticultural research at Westfalia, South Africa. Proceedings of the World Avocado Congress, Cairns, Queensland, Austrália, 7.

Whiley, A. W., Wolstenholme, B. N., & Faber, B. A. (2013). Crop management. In B. Schaffer, B. N. Wolstenholme, & A. W. Whiley (Eds.), The avocado: botany, production and uses (pp. 342-379). Wallingford: CAB International Press.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2021v42n6p3123

Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359
E-mail: semina.agrarias@uel.br
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional