Respiratory profile and gill histopathology of Carassius auratus exposed to different salinity concentrations

Weliton Vilhalba da Silva, Henrique Momo Ziemniczak, Flávia Barbieri Bacha, Rudã Brandão Santos Fernandes, Rodrigo Yudi Fujimoto, Rebeca Maria Sousa, Klaus Casaro Saturnino, Claucia Aparecida Honorato

Abstract


The aim of this study was to evaluate the chronic salinity tolerance of Carassius auratus and the effects on blood parameters, gill morphology, and survival. In the first test, nine different concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10, 15, 20, and 25 g L-1) of NaCl were used with nine repetitions for 96 h. The survival of fish subjected to 15 g L-1 NaCl was 4 h, and 5 min at a concentration of 25 g L-1. The mortality of fish with 15 g L-1 NaCl was 100%. Morphological analyses of the gills showed hyperplasia of the coated cells in the interlamellar space and hypersecretion of mucus in fish exposed to 10 g L-1 of NaCl. At concentrations of 20 and 25 g L-1, necrosis of the support collagen caused the cells to detach from the lamellar structure mucosa. In the chronic test, two concentrations were used, with four replications containing nine fish in each aquarium for a period of 21 days. Blood samples and gills from the fish were collected, and it was observed that the fish showed a decrease in the concentration of bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in the blood, indicating hypernatremia. Acute exposure of C. auratus to sodium chloride (NaCl) should be at a maximum of 10 g L-1 of NaCl, after which level there would be a loss in animal performance and/or mortality. Chronic exposure to 5 g L-1 of NaCl promotes acidemia, ionic imbalance, and pathological changes in the gills; therefore, it is not recommended.

Keywords


Common salt; Concentration; Kinguio; Ornamental fish; Osmoregulation.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abe, H. A., Dias, J. A. R., Cordeiro, C. A. M., Ramos, F. M., & Fujimoto, R. Y. (2015). Pyrrhulina brevis (Steindachner, 1876) as a new option for national ornamental fish farming: larviculture. Boletim do Instituto de Pesca, 41(1), 113-122. Retrieved from https://www.pesca.sp.gov.br/boletim/index.php/bip/ article/view/41_1_113-122

Anni, I. S. A., Bianchini, A., Barcarolli, I. F., Varela, A. S., Jr., Robaldo, R. B., Tesser, M. B., & Sampaio, L. A. (2016). Salinity influence on growth, osmoregulation and energy turnover in juvenile pompano Trachinotus marginatus Cuvier 1832. Aquaculture, 455, 63-72. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.01.010

Ashley, P. J. (2007). Fish welfare: current issues in aquaculture. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 104(3-4), 199-235. doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.09.001

Bandyopadhyay, P., Swain, S. K., & Mishra, S. (2005). Growth and dietary utilization in goldfish (Carassius auratus Linn.) fed diets formulated with various local agro-produces. Bioresource Technology, 96(6), 731-40. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2004.06.018

Boeuf, G., & Payan, P. (2001). How should salinity influence fish growth? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 130(4), 411-423. doi: 10.1016/S1532-0456(01)00268-X

Carlotti, A. P. C. P. (2012). Abordagem clínica dos distúrbios do equilíbrio ácido-base. Medicina (Ribeirão Preto Online), 45(2), 244-262. doi: 10.11606/issn.2176-7262.v45i2p244-262

Carmona, R., García Gallego, M., Sanz, A., Domezaín, A., & Ostos Garrido, M. V. (2004). Chloride cells and pavement cells in gill epithelia of Acipenser naccarii: ultrastructural modifications in seawater acclimated specimens. Journal of Fish Biology, 64(2), 553-566. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-1112.2004.00321.x

Choi, K., Cope, W. G., Harms, C. A., & Law, J. M (2013). Rapid decrease in salinity, but not increases, lead to immune dysregulation in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Journal of Fish Diseases, 36(4), 389-399. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2761.2012.01417.x

Diniz, N. M., & Honorato, C. A. (2012). Algumas alternativas para diminuir os efeitos do estresse em peixes de cultivo-revisão. Arquivos de Ciências Veterinárias e Zoologia da UNIPAR, 15(2), 149-154. Recuperado de https://www.revistas.unipar.br/index.php/veterinaria/article/view/4219

Evans, D. H., Piermarini, P. M., & Choe, K. P. (2005). The multifunctional fish gill: dominant site of gas exchange, osmoregulation, acid-base regulation, and excretion of nitrogenous waste. Physiological Reviews, 85(1), 97-177. doi: 10.1152/physrev.00050.2003

Farshadian, R., Salati, A. P., Keyvanshokooh, S., & Pasha-Zanoosi, H. (2018). Physiological responses of Yellowfin seabream (Acanthopagrus latus) to acute salinity challenge. Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology, 51(5), 313-325. doi: 10.1080/10236244.2019.1573638

Fashina-Bombata, H. A., & Busari, A. N. (2003). Influence of salinity on the developmental stages of African catfish Heterobranchus longifilis (Valenciennes, 1840). Aquaculture, 224(1-4), 213-222. doi: 10.1016/S0044-8486(03)00273-4

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2010). The State of world fisheries and aquaculture. Rome, Italy: FAO. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/i1820e/i1820e.pdf

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2017). Fish industry recognizing ornamental fish trade at the 2nd International. Ornamental Fish Trade and Technical Conference. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/in-action/globefish/news-events/details-news/en/c/469648/

Fracácio, R., Verani, N. F., Espíndola, E. L. G., Rocha, O., Rigolin-Sá, O., & Andrade, C. A. (2003). Alterations on growth and gill morphology of Danio rerio (Pisces, Ciprinidae) exposed to the toxic sediments. Brazilian archives of Biology and Technology, 46(4), 685-695. doi: 10.1590/S1516-891320 03000400023

Henares, M. N. P., Cruz, C., Gomes, G. R., Pitelli, R. A., & Machado, M. R. F. (2008). Toxicidade aguda e efeitos histopatológicos do herbicida diquat na brânquia e no fígado da tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus). Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences, 30(1), 77-82. doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1462

Honorato, C. A., Dambros, A., Marcondes, V. M., & Nascimento, C. A. (2014). Utilização do eugenol em jundiá da Amazônia (Leiarius marmoratus): implicações na sedação e avaliação hemogasométrica. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 35(5), 2759-2767. doi: 10.5433/1679-0359.2014v35n5p2759

Honorato, C. A., & Nascimento, C. A. (2016). Metabolismo respiratório e da glicose de Carassius auratus submetidos a concentrações de eugenol. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal, 17(3), 545-552. doi: 10.1590/S1519-99402016000300019

Hwang, P. P., & Lee, T. H. (2007). New insights into fish ion regulation and mitochondrion-rich cells. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology, 148(3), 479-497. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2007.06.416

Iwama, G. K., McGeer, J. C., & Pawluk, M. P. (1989). The effects of five fish anaesthetics on acid-base balance, hematocrit, blood gases, cortisol, and adrenaline in rainbow trout. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 67(8), 2065-2073. doi: 10.1139/z89-294

Jomori, R. K., Luz, R. K., Takata, R., Fabregat, T. E. H. P., & Portella, M. C. (2013). Água levemente salinizada aumenta a eficiência da larvicultura de peixes neotropicais. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 48(8), 809-815. doi: 10.1590/S0100-204X2013000800001

Kültz, D. (2015). Physiological mechanisms used by fish to cope with salinity stress. Journal of Experimental Biology, 218(12), 1907-1914. doi: 10.1242/jeb.118695

Lin, C. H., Huang, C. L., Yang, C. H., Lee, T. H., & Hwang, P. P. (2004). Time course changes in the expression of Na, KATPase and the morphometry of mitochondrion rich cells in gills of euryhaline tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) during freshwater acclimation. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Comparative Experimental Biology, 301(1), 85-96. doi: 10.1002/jez.a.20007

Lisboa, V., Barcarolli, I. F., Sampaio, L. A., & Bianchini, A. (2015). Effect of salinity on survival, growth and biochemical parameters in juvenile Lebranche mullet Mugil liza (Perciformes: Mugilidae). Neotropical Ichthyology, 13(2), 447-452. doi: 10.1590/1982-0224-20140122

Luz, R. K., & Santos, J. C. E. dos. (2008). Avaliação da tolerância de larvas do pacamã Lophiosilurus alexandri Steindachner, 1877 (Pisces: Siluriformes) a diferentes salinidades. Acta Scientiarum. Biological Sciences, 30(4), 345-350. doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.791

Mattioli, C. C., Takata, R., Leme, F. D. O. P., Costa, D. C., Melillo, R., Fº., Silva, W. D. S. e, & Luz, R. K. (2017). The effects of acute and chronic exposure to water salinity on juveniles of the carnivorous freshwater catfish Lophiosilurus alexandri. Aquaculture, 481, 255-266. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture. 2017.08.016

Mazon, A. F., Cerqueira, C. C. C., & Fernandes, M. N. (2002). Gill cellular changes induced by copper exposure in the South American tropical freshwater fish Prochilodus scrofa. Environmental Research, 88(1), 52-63. doi: 10.1006/enrs.2001.4315

Mirghaed, A. T., & Ghelichpour, M. (2019). Effects of anesthesia and salt treatment on stress responses, and immunological and hydromineral characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio, Linnaeus, 1758) subjected to transportation. Aquaculture, 501, 1-6. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.11.008

Moraes, G., Avilez, I. M., Altran, A. E., & Barbosa, C. C. (2002). Biochemical and hematological responses of the banded knife fish Gymnotus carapo (Linnaeus, 1758) exposed to environmental hypoxia. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 62(4A), 633-640. doi: 10.1590/S1519-69842002000400011

Moyses, C. R. S., Spadacci-Morena, D. D., Xavier, J. G., Antonucci, A. M., & Lallo, M. A. (2015). Ectocommensal and ectoparasites in goldfish Carassius auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) in farmed in the State of São Paulo. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, 24(3), 283-289. doi: 10.1590/S1984-296 12015054

Nordlie, F. G. (2009). Environmental influences on regulation of blood plasma/serum components in teleost fishes: a review. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 19(4), 481-564. doi: 10.1007/s11160-009-9131-4

Okamoto, T., Kurokawa, T., Gen, K., Murashita, K., Nomura, K., Kim, S. K., & Tanaka, H. (2009). Influence of salinity on morphological deformities in cultured larvae of Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, at completion of yolk resorption. Aquaculture, 293(1-2), 113-118. doi: 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.04. 005

Prodocimo, V., Souza, C. F., Pessini, C., Fernandes, L. C., & Freire, C. A. (2008). Metabolic substrates are not mobilized from the osmoregulatory organs (gills and kidney) of the estuarine pufferfishes Sphoeroides greeleyi and S. testudineus upon short-term salinity reduction. Neotropical Ichthyology, 6(4), 613-620. doi: 10.1590/S1679-62252008000400009

Rahmah, S., Liew, H. J., Napi, N., & Rahmat, S. A. (2020). Metabolic cost of acute and chronic salinity response of hybrid red tilapia Oreochromis sp. larvae. Aquaculture Reports, 16, e100233. doi: 10.1016/ j.aqrep.2019.100233

Reis, A. B., Sant'Ana, D. D. M. G., Azevedo, J. F. D., Merlini, L. S., & Araújo, E. J. D. A. (2009). Alterações do epitélio branquial e das lamelas de tilápias (Oreochromis niloticus) causadas por mudanças do ambiente aquático em tanques de cultivo intensivo. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 29(4), 303-311. doi: 10.1590/S0100-736X2009000400005

Schwaiger, J., Wanke, R., Adam, S., Pawert, M., Honnen, W., & Triebskorn, R. (1997). The use of histopathological indicators to evaluate contaminant-related stress in fish. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery, 6(1), 75-86. doi: 10.1023/A:1008212000208

Smith, M. E., Kane, A. S., & Popper, A. N. (2004). Noise-induced stress response and hearing loss in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Journal of Experimental Biology, 207(3), 427-435. doi: 10.1242/jeb.00755




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2021v42n5p2993

Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433 / 1679-0359
E-mail:  semina.agrarias@uel.br
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença  Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional