Chemical composition, aerobic stability, and fermentation pattern of white oat silage wilted with glyphosate

Antonio Vinicius Iank Bueno, Fernando Alberto Jacovaci, Matheus Gonçalves Ribeiro, Clóves Cabreira Jobim, João Luiz Pratti Daniel, Tamara Tais Tres, Robson Marcelo Rossi

Abstract


White oat has good nutritional quality but is not an easy forage to ensile due to its high buffer capacity and moisture content at ensiling moment. Therefore, wilting is necessary to offset such negative aspects. However, this process demands skilled workforce and adequate machinery. In this way, chemical desiccation is a promising technology to reduce the steps needed for wilting. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effects of glyphosate as a chemical desiccant on the nutritional quality, fermentation pattern, losses, and aerobic stability of wilted white oat (Avena sativa) silages. White oat sowing occurred in the first fortnight of May 2013. Desiccant application took place when oat reached milky-dough grain stage (96 days after planting). Glyphosate doses evaluated were 0, 500, 750, 1000, and 1250 mL ha?1. Three days after desiccation, all treatments were ensiled, and the silos were stored for 150 days. A completely randomized design was used, and all statistical procedures were performed by means of Bayesian Inference. No differences were found for lactic acid, but treated-silage pH linearly decreased. The lowest concentration of butyric acid (3.40 mg kg-1) was observed at 900.80 mL ha-1. For ammonia, the highest point (50 g kg-1) occurred at 916.51 mL ha-1. Aerobic stability was not influenced by treatments. Maximum dry matter recovery index (934 g kg-1) was observed at 864.20 mL ha-1 glyphosate. Wilted forage from treatments 500 mL ha-1, 750 mL ha-1, and 1000 mL ha-1 had greater dry matter content compared to control (320.1, 326, 301.3, and 270.7 g kg-1 respectively). Hemicellulose linearly decreased and crude protein linearly increased. The lowest concentrations of neutral detergent fiber (642.8 g kg-1) and neutral-detergent insoluble nitrogen (2.30 g kg-1) occurred at doses of 1141.32 mL ha-1 and 829.14 mL ha-1, respectively. In brief, for wilted white oat silage production, harvested at milky-dough grain stage, glyphosate application prior to ensiling up to 1000 mL ha-1 led to better conservation compared to non-treated silage.

Keywords


Wilting; Dry Matter losses; Neutral Detergent Fiber; Ammonia Nitrogen.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (1990). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 15th Edition. Gaithersburg, MD (USA).

Cazzato, E., Laudadio, V., Corleto, A., & Tufarelli, V. (2011). Effects of harvest date, wilting and inoculation on yield and forage quality of ensiling safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) biomass. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91(12), 2298-2302. doi:10.1002/jsfa.4452

Comissão de Química e Fertilidade do Solo. (2004). Manual de adubação e calagem para os Estados do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina. (10th ed.). Porto Alegre, RS: Sociedade Brasileira de Ciência do Solo - Núcleo Regional Sul.

Danner, H., Holzer, M., Mayrhuber, E., & Braun, R. (2003). Acetic acid increases stability of silage under aerobic conditions. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69(1), 562-567. doi: 10.1128/AEM.69.1.562-567.2003.

Daniel, J., Weiß, K., Custódio, L., Neto, A. S., Santos, M., Zopollatto, M., & Nussio, L. (2013). Occurrence of volatile organic compounds in sugarcane silages. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 185(1-2), 101-105. doi: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2013.06.011

David, D. B. d., Nörnberg, J. L., Azevedo, E. B. d., Brüning, G., Kessler, J. D., & Skonieski, F. R. (2010). Nutritional value of black and white oat cultivars ensiled in two phenological stages. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 39(7), 1409-1417. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982010000700003

Detmann, E., Souza, M.A., Valadares Filho, S.C., Queiroz, A.C., Berchielli, T.T., Saliba, E.O.S., Cabral, L.S., Pina, D.S., Ladeira, M.M. & Azevedo J.A.G. (2012). Métodos para análise de alimentos. Visconde do Rio Branco, MG: Suprema.

Duke, S. O., Hoagland, R. E., & Elmore, C. D. (1979). Effects of glyphosate on metabolism of phenolic compounds. Physiologia Plantarum, 46(4), 307-317. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1979.tb02626.x

Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária. (2012). Atlas climática da região sul do Brasil (Estados do Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul). (2nd ed.). Brasília, DF: Author.

Fontaneli, R. S., Fontaneli, R. S., Santos, H. d., Nascimento Junior, A., Minella, E., & Caierão, E. (2009). Rendimento e valor nutritivo de cereais de inverno de duplo propósito: forragem verde e silagem ou grãos. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 38(11), 2116-2120. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982009001100007

Geweke, J. (1991). Evaluating the accuracy of sampling-based approaches to the calculation of posterior moments (p. 31). Proceedings of 4th Valencia International Meeting on Baysian Statistics. Peñiscola, Spain.

Heidelberger, P., & Welch, P. D. (1983). Simulation run length control in the presence of an initial transient. Operations Research, 31(6), 1109-1144. doi: 10.1287/opre.31.6.1109

Jacobs, J., Hill, J., & Jenkin, T. (2009). Effect of stage of growth and silage additives on whole crop cereal silage nutritive and fermentation characteristics. Animal Production Science, 49(7), 595-607. doi: 10.1071/EA08244

Jobim, C. C., Nussio, L. G., Reis, R. A., & Schmidt, P. (2007). Avanços metodológicos na avaliação da qualidade da forragem conservada. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 101-119. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982007001000013

Kala?, P. (2011). The effects of silage feeding on some sensory and health attributes of cow’s milk: A review. Food Chemistry, 125(2), 307-317. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.08.077

Kung, L., Shaver, R., Grant, R., & Schmidt, R. (2018). Silage review: interpretation of chemical, microbial, and organoleptic components of silages. Journal of Dairy Science, 101(5), 4020-4033. doi:10.3168/jds.2017-13909

Kung, L., Sheperd, A., Smagala, A., Endres, K., Bessett, C., Ranjit, N., & Glancey, J. (1998). The effect of preservatives based on propionic acid on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silage and a total mixed ration. Journal of Dairy Science, 81(5), 1322-1330. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75695-4.

Lehmen, R. I., Fontaneli, R. S., Fontaneli, R. S., & dos Santos, H. P. (2014). Rendimento, valor nutritivo e características fermentativas de silagens de cereais de inverno. Ciencia rural, 44(7), 1180-1185. doi: 10.1590/0103-8478cr20130840

Li, Y., & Nishino, N. (2011). Bacterial and fungal communities of wilted Italian ryegrass silage inoculated with and without Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Lactobacillus buchneri. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 52(4), 314-321. doi: 10.1111/j.1472-765X.2010.03000.x

Meinerz, G. R., Olivo, C. J., Viégas, J., Nörnberg, J. L., Agnolin, C. A., Scheibler, R. B., Horst, T., & Fontaneli, R. S. (2011). Silagem de cereais de inverno submetidos ao manejo de duplo propósito. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 40(10), 2097-2104. doi: 10.1590/S1516-35982011001000005

Nishino, N., & Shinde, S. (2007). Ethanol and 2, 3?butanediol production in whole?crop rice silage. Grassland science, 53(3), 196-198. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-697X.2007.00089.x

Orcaray, L., Zulet, A., Zabalza, A., & Royuela, M. (2012). Impairment of carbon metabolism induced by the herbicide glyphosate. Journal of plant physiology, 169(1), 27-33. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2011.08.009

Pahlow, G., Muck, R.E., Driehuis, F., Elferink, S.J. & Spoelstra, S.F. (2003). Microbiology of ensiling. In: Silage Science and Technology (pp. 31-93). Madison, Wisconsin: American Society of Agronomy.

Paredes, C., Roig, A., Bernal, M., Sánchez-Monedero, M., & Cegarra, J. (2000). Evolution of organic matter and nitrogen during co-composting of olive mill wastewater with solid organic wastes. Biology and fertility of soils, 32(3), 222-227. doi: 10.1007/s003740000239.

Peel, M. C., Finlayson, B. L., & McMahon, T. A. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. Hydrology and earth system sciences discussions, 4(2), 439-473.

Pryce, J. (1969). A modification of the Barker-Summerson method for the determination of lactic acid. Analyst, 94(1125), 1151-1152. doi: 10.1039/AN9699401151

R Development Core Team (2014). R: A language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

Rossi, R.M. (2011). Introdução aos métodos Bayesianos na análise de

dados zootécnicos com uso do WinBUGS e R. Maringá, PR: Eduem.

Santos, H. dos, Jacomine, P.K.T., Dos Anjos, L., De Oliveira, V., De Oliveira, J.D., Coelho, M.R., Lumbreras, J.F. & Cunha, T.D. (2006). Sistema brasileiro de classificação de solos. Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Embrapa Solos.

Silva, D.J. & Queiroz, A.C. (2009) Análise de alimentos (métodos químicos e biológicos) (3rd ed). Viçosa, MG: editora UFV.

Souza, O. M. (2014). Aplicação de procedimentos bayesianos para a análise de dados experimentais na produção animal. PhD degree thesis, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, PR, Brazil.

Spiegelhalter, D. J., Best, N. G., Carlin, B. P., & Van Der Linde, A. (2002). Bayesian measures of model complexity and fit. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology), 64(4), 583-639. doi: 10.1111/1467-9868.00353

Van Soest, P. J. (1967). Use of detergents in the analysis of fibrous feeds. Determination of plant cell wall constituents. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 50, 50-55.

Van Soest, P. J., Robertson, J., & Lewis, B. (1991). Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74(10), 3583-3597. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2

Weinberg, Z., Ashbell, G., Hen, Y., & Azrieli, A. (1995). The effect of a propionic acid bacterial inoculant applied at ensiling on the aerobic stability of wheat and sorghum silages. Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, 15(6), 493-497. doi: 10.1007/BF01570020

Wilkinson, J., & Davies, D. (2013). The aerobic stability of silage: key findings and recent developments. Grass and Forage Science, 68(1), 1-19. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2494.2012.00891.x

Zobiole, L. H. S., de Oliveira Jr, R. S., Kremer, R. J., Constantin, J., Bonato, C. M., & Muniz, A. S. (2010). Water use efficiency and photosynthesis of glyphosate-resistant soybean as affected by glyphosate. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 97(3), 182-193. doi: 10.1016/j.pestbp.2010.01.004




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2020v41n3p971

Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433 / 1679-0359
E-mail:  semina.agrarias@uel.br
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença  Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional