Clinical determination of the nutritional status of companion animals

Andrei Kelliton Fabretti, Lucas Alécio Gomes, Daniella Aparecida Godoi Kemper, Rafael Oliveira Chaves, Bernardo Kemper, Patrícia Mendes Pereira

Abstract


A well-nourished animal is predisposed to good quality of life, health and high longevity. On the other hand, malnourished animals are predisposed to higher morbidity and mortality rates, recurrent hospitalizations, longer hospitalization times, and high health care expenditures. Malnutrition is associated with metabolic alterations and systemic dysfunctions, such as immunosuppression, impaired healing, and loss of weight due to reduced muscle and adipose mass, in addition to worsening skin and coat appearance. Nutritional assessment quantifies not only malnutrition and overweight but also how much these deviations would influence a patient's prognosis. In addition, the identification of malnourished animals allows the performance of specific nutritional treatments, with consequent clinical improvement. There are several techniques to evaluate nutritional status (NS) in dogs and cats; however, because they are individually limited, it is highly recommended to incorporate different methods before completing each case assessment. This literature review gathered information on the techniques of NS assessment during clinical examination, including anamnesis and physical examination. The importance of the manuscript is justified by the lack of nutritional semiology of small animals in the literature. In summary, there are useful markers of NS in companion animals: weight variation, the muscle mass score (MMS) and the body condition score (BCS). Additionally, the BCS, MMS and body mass index (BMI) assist in determining prognosis.

Keywords


Mortality; Nutritional assessment; Malnutrition.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aptekmann, K. P., Mendes, A. F., Jr., Passo, C. B., Secchin, M. C., & Galeas, M. A. V. (2014). Comparação dos diferentes métodos de avaliação corporal em felinos. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2), 215-218.

Baldwin, K., Bartges, J., Buffington, T., Freeman, L. M., Grabow, M., Legred, J., & Ostwald, J. D (2010). AAHA nutritional assessment guidelines for dogs and cats. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 46(4), 285-296. doi: 10.5326/0460285

Becvarova, I., Prochazka, D., Chandler, M. L., & Meyer, H (2017). Nutrition education in European veterinary schools: are European veterinary graduates competent in nutrition? Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 43(4), 349-358. doi: 10.3138/jvme.0715-122R1

Bergler, R., Wechsung, S., Kienzle, E., Hoff, T., & Dobenecker, B. (2016). Ernährungsberatung in der Kleintierpraxis - ein Arbeitsfeld für spezialisierte Tierärzte. Tierärztliche Praxis Kleintiere, 44(1), 5-14. doi: 10.1055/s-0037-1622399

Bjornvad, C. R., Nielsen, D. H., Armstrong, P. J., Mcevoy, F., Hoelmkjaer, K. M., Jensen, K. S.,... Kristensen, A. T. (2011). Evaluation of a ninepoint body condition scoring system in physically inactive pet cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 72(4), 33-37. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.72.4.433

Brooks, D., Churchill, J., Fein, K., Linder, D., Michel, K., Tudor, K.,… Witzel, A. (2014). 2014 AAHA weight management guidelines for dogs and cats. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 50(1), 1-11. doi: 10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6331

Brunetto, M. A., & Carcioffi, A. C. (2015). Suporte nutricional do paciente gravemente enfermo. In M. M. Jericó, J. P. Andrade, Neto, & M. M. Kogika (Eds.), Tratado de medicina interna de cães e gatos (Cap, 6, pp. 49-65). Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Editora Guanabara Koogan LTDA.

Brunetto, M. A., Gomes, M. O. S., Andre, M. R., Teshima, E., Gonçalves, K. N. V., Pereira, G. T.,... Carciofi, A. C. (2010). Effects of nutritional support on hospital outcome in dogs and cats. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 20(2), 224-231. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2009.00507.x

Burkholder, W. J. (1994). Body composition of dogs determined by carcass composition analysis, deuterium oxide dilution, subjective and objective morphometry and bioelectrical impedance. Doctoral thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia, VA, United States of America.

Case, L., Daristotle, L., Hayek, M. G., & Raasch, M. F. (2011). Energy and water. In L. Case, L. Daristotle, M. G. Hayek, & M. F., Raasch (Eds.),, Canine and feline nutrition: a resource for companion animal professionals (pp. 3-12). Missouri, MO: Mosby Elsevier.

Chandler, M. L., & Gunn-Moore, D. A. (2004). Nutritional status of canine and feline patients admitted to a referral veterinary internal medicine service. Journal of Nutrition, 134(8), 2050-2052. doi: 10.1093/jn/134.8.2050S

Coe, J. B., O´Connor, R. E., MacMartin, C., Verbrugghe, A., & Janke, K. A. (2020). Effects of three diets history questions on the amount of information gained from a sample of pet owers in Ontario, Canada. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 256(4), 469-478. doi: 10.2460/javma.256. 4.469

Corbee, R. J., & Kerkhoven, W. J. S. V. (2014). Nutritional support of dogs and cats after surgery or illness. Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 4(4), 44-57. doi: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.44006

Delaney, S. J., & Fascetti, A. (2006). Integration of nutrition into clinical practice. In P. Pibot, V. Biourge, & D. Elliott (Eds.), Encyclopedia of canine clinical nutrition (Chap. 16, pp. 494-504). Aimargues: Aniwa SAS.

Eirmann, L. (2016). Nutritional assessment. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, 46(5), 855-867. doi: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2016.04.012

Elliott, D. A., Ettinger, S. J., & Feldman, E. C. (2010). Body composition of the dog and cat. In S. J. Ettinger, & E. C. Feldman (Eds.), Textbook of veterinary internal medicine expert consult (Chap. 165, pp.634-637). California, CA: Elsevier.

Fabretti, A. K., Fonseca, I. B., Coelho, A. F., Silva, C. N., & Pereira, P. M. (2015). Evaluation of clinical, laboratory, and electrophoretic profiles for diagnosis of malnutrition in hospitalized dogs. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 36(1), 217-230. doi: 10.5433/1679-0359.2015v36n1p217

Fabretti, A. K., Fonseca, I. B., Pancieri, I. V. C., Knupp, F. C., Bordini, D. M., & Pereira, P. M. (2014). Avaliação clínica, laboratorial e perfil eletroforético na determinação do prognóstico de cães hospitalizados. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 35(6), 3113-3126. doi: 10.5433/1679-0359.2014v35n6 p3113

Fabretti, A. K., Siqueira, R. C. S., Chaves, R. O., Camacho, C. A., & Pereira, P. M. (2018). Exames laboratoriais na desnutrição de pequenos animais. Revista Clínica Veterinária, 23(133), 40-54.

Finn, E., Freeman, L. M., Rush, J. E., & Lee, Y. (2010). The relationship between body weight, body condition, and survival in cats with heart failure. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24(6), 1369-1374. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2010.0584.x

Freeman, L. M. (2012). Cachexia and sarcopenia: emerging syndromes of importance in dogs and cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 26(1), 3-17. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00838.x

Freeman, L. M., Becvarova, I., Cave, N., Mackay, C., Nguyen, P., Rama, B.,… Beukelen, P. V. (2011). World small animal veterinary association nutrional assesment guidelines. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 52(1), 385-396. doi: 10.1016/j.jfms.2011.05.009

Freeman, L. M., Michel, K. E., Zanghi, B. M., & Boler, B. M. V. (2019). Evaluation of the use of muscle condition score and ultrasonographic measurements for assessment of muscle mass in dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 80(6), 595-600. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.80.6.595

Gagne, J. W., & Wakshlag, J. J. (2015). Pathophysiology and clinical approach to malnutrition in dogs and cats. In D. L. Chan (Ed.), Nutritional management of hospitalized small animals (pp. 117-127). Oxford, OH: John Wiley & Sons.

Gama, F. F., Leite, M. A. S., Escodro, P. B., & Notomi, M. K. (2016). Avaliação da condição corpórea em cães utilizando o índice de massa corpórea (IMC) e escore de condição corpórea (ECC). Ciência Veterinária nos Trópicos, 19(2), 19-25.

Hawthorne, A. J., & Butterwick, R. F. (2000). Predicting the body composition of cats: development of a zoometric measurement for estimation of percentage body fat in cats. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 14(3), 365-375.

Hesbach, A. L. (2007). Techniques for objective outcome assessment. Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice, 22(3), 146-154. doi: 10.1053/j.ctsap.2007.09.002

Hutchinson, D., Sutherland-Smith, J., Watson, A. L., & Freeman, L. M. (2012). Assessment of methods of evaluating sarcopenia in old dogs. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 73(11), 1794-1800. doi: 10.2460/ajvr.73.11.1794

Johnson, L. N., & Freeman, L. M. (2017). Recognizing, describing, and managing reduced food intake in dogs and cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 251(11), 1260-1266. doi: 10.2460/javma.251.11.1260

Kanda, T., Maeta, N., Iguchi, A., Shibata, K., Nomura, C., Yamamoto, T.,… Furukawa, T. (2013). Correlation between computed tomographic assessment of body fat and body condition score evaluation in dogs. Journal of Pet Animal Nutrition, 16(1), 1-6. doi: 10.11266/jpan.16.1

Kathrani, A. (2016). Nutritional support in the intensive care unit. In Practice, 38(4), 18-24. doi: 10.1136/inp.i5414

Kawasumi, K., Iwazaki, E., Okada, Y., & Arai, T. (2016). Effectiveness of feline body mass index (fBMI) as new diagnostic tool for obesity. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Research, 64(1), 51-56. doi: 10.14943/jjvr.64.1.51

Koizumi, A., Aoyama, K., Morishita, M., Sugiyama, Y., & Otsuji, K. (2018). The effectiveness of the body condition score model for the nutritional assessment in dogs (the 2nd report). Jornal da Sociedade da Nutrição do Animal de Estimação, 21(2), 95-101. doi: 10.11266/jpan.21.2_95

Laflamme, D. P. (1997a). Development and validation of a body condition score system for dogs. Canine Practice, 22(4), 10-15.

Laflamme, D. P. (1997b). Development and validation of a body condition score system for cats: a clinical tool. Feline Practice, 25(5), 13-18.

Laflamme, D. P. (2012). Companion animals symposium, obesity in dogs and cats: what is wrong with being fat? Journal of Animal Science, 90(7), 1653-1662. doi: 10.2527/jas.2011-4571

Liu, D. T., Brown, D. C., & Silverstein, D. C. (2012). Early nutritional support is associated with decreased length of hospitalization in dogs with septic peritonitis: a retrospective study of 45 cases (2000-2009). Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 22(4), 453-459. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-4431.2012. 00771.x

Macmartin, C., Wheat, H. C., Coe, J. B., & Adams, C. L. (2015). Effect of questions design on dietary information solicited during veterinarian-client interactions in companion animal practice in Ontario, Canada. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 246(11), 1203-1214. doi: 10.2460/javma.246.11.1203

Maicá, A. O., & Schweigert, I. D. (2008). Avaliação nutricional em pacientes graves. Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva, 20(3), 286-295.

Mauldin, G. E., & Davidson, J. R. (2007). Suporte nutricional em cães e gatos hospitalizados. In D. Slatter (Ed.), Manual de cirurgia de pequenos animais (pp. 87-91). Barueri, SP: Manole.

Mawby, D. I., Bartges, J. W., d’Avignon, A., Laflamme, D. P., Moyers, T. D., & Cottrell, T. (2004). Comparison of various methods for estimating body fat in dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 40(2), 109-114. doi: 10.5326/0400109

Michel, K. E. (2017). Nutritional assessment . In S. J. Ettinger, & E. C. Feldman (Eds.), Textbook of veterinary internal medicine expert consult (Chap. 170, pp. 1830-1833). California, CA: Elsevier.

Michel, K. E. (2009). Using a diet history to improve adherence to dietary recommendations. Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians, 18(31), 22-24.

Michel, K. E. (2013). Nutritional management of body weight. In A. J. Fascetti, & S. J. Delaney (Eds.), Applied veterinary clinical nutrition (Chap. 9, pp. 109-124). California, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

Michel, K. E. (2015). Nutritional assessment in small animals. In D. L. Chan (Ed.), Nutritional management of hospitalized small animals (pp. 1-6). Oxford, OH: John Wiley & Sons.

Michel, K. E., Anderson, W., Cupp, C., & Laflamme, D. (2009). Validation of a subjective muscle mass scoring system for cats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 93(6), 806. doi: 10.1017/S000711451100050X

Michel, K. E., Anderson, W., Cupp, C., & Laflamme, D. P. (2011). Correlation of a feline muscle mass score with body composition determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. British Journal of Nutrition, 106, 57-59. doi: 10.1017/S000711451100050X

Mohr, A. J., Leisewitz, A. L., Jacobson, L. S., Steiner, J. M., Ruaux, C. G., & Williams, D. A. (2003). Effects of early enteral nutrition on intestinal permeability, intestinal protein loss, and outcome in dogs with severe parvoviral enteritis. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 17(6), 791-798. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2003.tb02516.x

Muller, J. E., Pinheiro, M. S., & Mendonça, D. C. (2008). Adaptação do índice de massa corporal humano para cães. Ciência Rural, 38(4), 1038-1043. doi: 10.1590/S0103-84782008000400020

Nakajima, M., Ohno, K., Goto-Koshino, Y., Fujino, Y., & Tsujimoto, H. (2014). Plasma transferrin concentration as a nutritional marker in malnourished dogs with nutritional treatment. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 76(4), 539-543. doi: 10.1292/jvms.13-0583

Otsuji, K., Koizumi, A., Kobayashi, N., Suzuki, M., Furukawa, N., Kumira, A., & Kobayashi, T. (2016). The effectiveness of the body condition score model for the nutritional assessment in dogs. Pet Nutrition Society Journal, 19(1), 15-20. doi: 10.11266/jpan.19.1_15

Purina (2016). Formulário de histórico alimentar. In Nestle Purina Petcare, Nutrição clínica canina e felina: guia prático de referência para uso diário no exercício da medicina veterinária (pp. 125-126). São Paulo, SP: Nestlé Purina.

Rollins, A. W., & Murphy, M. (2019). Nutritional assessment in the cat practical recommendations for better medical care. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 21(5), 442-448. doi: 10.1177/1098612X 19843213

Romano, F. R., Heinze, C. R., Barber, L. G., Mason, J. B., & Freeman, L. M. (2016). Association between body condition score and cancer prognosis in dogs with Lymphoma and Osteosarcoma. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 30(4), 1179-1186. doi: 10.1111/jvim.13965

Rosa, K. A., Fabretti, A. K., Zanutto, M. S., & Chaves, R. O. (2014). Efeitos da alimentação hipossódica em cães cardiopatas. MEDVEP - Revista Científica de Medicina Veterinária, 12(42), 462-467.

Roudebush, P., & Schoenherr, W. D. (2010). Skin and hair disorders. In M. S. Hand, C. D. Tratcher, R. L. Remillard, P. Roudebush, & C. Novotny (Eds.), Small animal clinical nutrition (pp. 637-665). Topeka, KS: Mark Morris Institute.

Saker, K. E., & Remillard, R. L. (2010). Critical care nutrition and enteral-assisted feeding. In M. S. Hand, C. D. Tratcher, R. L. Remillard, P. Roudebush, & C. Novotny (Eds.), Small animal clinical nutrition (pp. 351-390). Topeka, KS: Mark Morris Institute.

Santarossa, A., Parr, J. M., & Verbrugghe, A. (2017). The importance of assessing body composition of dogs and cats and methods available for use in clinical practice. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 251(5), 521-529. doi: 10.2460/javma.251.5.521

Shoveller, A. K., Digennaro, J., Lanman, C., & Spangler, D. (2014). Trained vs untrained evaluator assessment of body condition score as a predictor of percent body fat in adult cats. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 16(12), 957-965. doi: 10.1177/1098612X14527472

Stanton, C. A., Hamar, D. W., Johnson, D. E., & Fettman, M. J. (1992). Bioelectrical impedance and zoometry for body composition analysis in domestic cats. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 53(2), 251-257.

Tarkosova, D., Story, M. M., Rand, J. S., & Svoboda, M. (2016). Feline obesity - prevalence, risk factors, pathogenesis, associated conditions and assessment. Veterinarni Medicina, 61(6), 295-307. doi: 10.17221/145/2015-VETMED

Vandendriessche, V. L., Picavet, P., & Hesta, M. (2017). First detailed nutritional survey in a referral companion animal population. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, 101(1), 4-14. doi: 10.1111/jpn.12621

Veado, J. C. C. (2015). Nutrição clínica do paciente hospitalizado: nutrição parenteral e enteral. In M. M. Jericó, J. P. Andrade, Neto, & M. M. Kogika, Tratado de medicina interna de cães e gatos (Cap. 37, pp. 291-298). Rio de Janeiro, RJ: Editora Guanabara Koogan LTDA.

White, G. A., Hobson-Wes,T. P., Cobb, K., Craigon, J., Hammond, R., & Millar, K. M. (2011). Canine obesity: is there a difference between veterinarian and owner perception? Journal of Small Animal Practice, 52(12), 622-626. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2011.01138.x

Witzel, A. L., Kirk, C., Henry, G., Toll, P. W., Brejda, J. J., & Paetau-Robinson, I. (2014a). Use of a morphometric method and body fat index system for estimation of body composition in overweight and obese dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 244(11), 1279-1284. doi: 10.2460/javma.244.11.1279

Witzel, A. L., Kirk, C., Henry, G., Toll, P. W., Brejda, J. J., & Paetau-Robinson, I. (2014b). Use of a morphometric method and body fat index system for estimation of body composition in overweight and obese cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 244(11), 1285-1290. doi: 10.2460/javma.244.11.1285

World Small Animal Veterinary Association (2013). Muscle condition score. Ontario, CA: WSAVA Global Veterinary Development. Retrieved from https://www.wsava.org/WSAVA/media/Documents/ Committee%20Resources/Global%20Nutrition%20Committee/Muscle-condition-score-chart-2013-1.pdf




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2020v41n5p1813

Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359
E-mail: semina.agrarias@uel.br
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional