Microbiological analysis in the fixation and preservation of dog cadavers with ethyl alcohol and sodium chloride solution

Natália Pereira, Marita Vedovelli Cardozo, Thiago André Salvitti de Sá Rocha, Raphael Chiarelo Zero, Fernando Antônio de Ávila, Fabrício Singaretti de Oliveira


There are several fixative or preservative solutions for use on cadavers, and formaldehyde is the most widely used. However, this chemical may present negative effects for professionals who manipulate it. Therefore, this study aimed to identify and quantify the main microorganisms related to the fixation and preservation of dog cadavers using an alternative and formaldehyde-free solution. After arterial injection (120 mL kg?1 95% 96° GL ethyl alcohol and 5% pure glycerin), cadavers were placed in 96° GL ethyl alcohol for 30 (group 1), 60 (group 2), 90 (group 3), and 120 days (group 4). After the fixation period, they remained under preservation in a 30% aqueous sodium chloride solution for 120 days. Bacterial quantification was performed by the pour plate method. The bacterial population was present in all groups during fixation, except for group 1, but never exceeded 9 × 101 CFU mL?1 in total aerobes and 7 × 101 CFU mL?1 in total anaerobes. The microbial population was present in all groups in at least two moments during preservation and never exceeded 7 × 101 CFU mL?1 in total aerobes and anaerobes. The presence of fungi was observed in 8 out of 34 analyses. Pseudomonas sp., Escherichia coli, and Bacillus sp. were identified in the analyzed samples. Microbiological counting was low, and no signs of contamination were observed in the vats at visual inspection.


Anatomy; Animal; Bacterium; Surgery; Microbiological counting.

Full Text:



BARROW, G. I.; FELTHAM, R. K. A. (Ed.). Cowan and Steel ?s manual for the identification of medical bacteria. 3. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 1993. 331 p.

EISMA, R., WILKINSON, T. From ‘‘Silent Teachers’’ to models. PLoS Biolology. v. 12, n. 10, p 1-5, 2014. DOI: 10. 1371/journal.pbio.1001971.

FRIKER, J.; ZEILER, E.; McDANIEL, B. J. From formalin to salt. Development and introduction on a salt-based preserving solution of macroscopic anatomic specimens. Tierarztl. Praxis, v. 35, n. 4, p. 243-248, 2007. DOI: 10.1055/s-0038-1622624.

GUASTALLI, B. H. L.; NUNES, T. C.; GAMÓN, T. H. M.; CARMO, L. G.; DEL QUIQUI, E. M.; OLIVEIRA, F. S. Análise da textura de músculos submetidos à fixação em formaldeído e conservação em benzoato de sódio 0,5% e ácido acético 0,5%. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, v. 40, n. 4, p. 1041, 2012.

HAYASHI, S.; HOMMA, H.; NAITO, M.; ODA, J.; NISHIYAMA, T.; KAWAMOTO, A.; KAWATA, S.; SATO, N.; FUKUHARA, T.; TAGUCHI, H.; MASHIKO, K.; AZUHATA, T.; ITO, M.; KAWAI, K.; SUZUKI, T.; NISHIZAWA, Y.; ARAKI, J.; MATSUNO, N.; SHIRAI, T.; QU, N.; HATAYAMA, N.; HIRAI, S.; FUKUI, H.; OHSETO, K.; YUKIOKA, T.; ITOH, M. Satured salt solution method: A useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training. Medicine, v. 93, n. 27, p. 1-10, 2014. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000000196.

HAYASHI, S.; NAITO, M.; KAWATA, S.; QU, N.; HATAYAMA, N.; HIRAI, S.; ITOH, M. History and future of human cadaver preservation for surgical training: from formalin to salturated salt solution method. Anatomical Science International, v. 91, n. 1, p. 1-7, 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s12565-015-0299-5.

JANCZYK, P.; WEIGNERA, P.; LUEBKE-BECKERB, A.; KAESSMEYERA, S.; PLENDLA, J. Nitrite pickling salt as an alternative to formaldehyde for embalming in veterinary anatomy - A study based on histo- and microbiological analyses. Annals of Anatomy, v. 193, n. 1, p. 71-75, 2011. DOI: 10.1016/j.aanat.2010.08.003.

LAFLAMME, D. P. Development and validation of a body condition score system for dogs. Canine Practice, v. 22, n. 4, p. 10-15, 1997.

MATHEWS, K. G.; RILEY, K.; LASCELLES, B. D. X.; DERNELL, W. S. Preparation of canine and feline cadavers for surgical laboratories. Veterinary Surgery, v. 39, n. 2, p. 224-225, 2010. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2009.00586.x.

NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM - NTP. Formaldehyde: RoC Background Document, 2010. Disponível em: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/roc/twelfth/2009/november/formaldehydbdfinal.pdf. Acesso em: 20 nov. 2018.

NUNES, T. C.; OLIVEIRA, F. S.; GAMON, T. H. M.; GUASTALLI, B. H. L., CARMO, L. G.; DEL QUIQUI, E. M. Análise da textura de músculos peitorais submetidos á fixação e conservação em álcool. Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science, v. 48, n. 6, p. 464-467, 2011. DOI: 10.11606/S1413-95962011000600004.

OLIVEIRA, F. S. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study. Journal of Anatomy, v. 225, n. 1, p. 118-121, 2014. DOI: 10.1111/joa.12185.

RODRIGUES, H. Técnicas anatômicas. Vitória: GM Gráfica & Editora, 2010. 269 p.

SILVA, R. M. G.; MATERA, J. M.; RIBEIRO, A. A. C. M. New alternative methods to teach surgical techniques for veterinary medicine students despite the absence of living animals. is that an academic paradox? Anatomy Histology Embryology, v. 36, n. 3, p. 220-224, 2007. DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0264.2006.00759.x.

SILVA, R. M. G.; MATERA, J. M.; RIBEIRO, A. A. C. M. Preservation of cadavers for surgical technique training. Veterinary Surgery, v. 33, n. 6, p. 606-608, 2004. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2004.04083.x.

SOLOMON, W. R. Assessing fungus prevalence in domestic interiors. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, v. 56, n. 3, p.235-242, 1975.

SPICHER, G.; PETERS, J. Microbial resistance to formaldehyde. I Comparative quantitative studies in some selected species of vegetative bacteria, bacterial spores, fungi, bacteriophages and viruses. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, v. 163, n. 5-6, p.486-508, 1976.

VANDERZANT, C.; SPLITTSTOESSER, D. E. Compendium of methods for the microbiological examination of foods. 3. ed. Washington: American Public Health Association, 1992. 1219 p.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2019v40n6Supl2p3099

Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359
E-mail: semina.agrarias@uel.br
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional