A retrospective study of dogs with vertebral lytic lesions diagnosed tomografically: 28 cases (2012-2017)

Gabriela Ribas Mendes, Fernando Swiech Bach, Luiz Fernando Cardoso Garcia, Saulo Henrique Weber, José Ademar Villanova Junior

Abstract


Lytic vertebral lesions cause significant pain and variable neurological deficits can cause sensory, motor and proprioceptive loss, and are causes of bones lysis such as discospondylitis, vertebral tumors, bone cysts and osteomyelitis. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of vertebral lytic lesions in the canine population, from computed tomographic (CT) image analyses. A retrospective study, based on the descriptive findings from simple and contrast enhanced CT scans of dogs, between the years 2012 to 2017, was performed. The study consisted of the sequential analysis of 371 reports to identify vertebral lytic lesions, in areas with osteopenia and hypoattenuation, based on Hounsfield Unit scores. The Fisher’s exact test and descriptive statistics were used for statistical analyses. Twenty-eight cases (7.54%) of vertebral lytic lesion were observed; 46.42% of these had characteristics of discospondylitis, with a prevalence in males, in the cranial and caudal ends of the vertebrae. Vertebral tumors were identified in 37.71% of the cases, with a higher incidence in defined medium sized breeds, with unifocal lesions in the vertebral body. Single lesion bone cysts were observed in 10.71% of cases and osteomyelitis in 7.14% of cases. A significant association between the number of vertebrae and degree of impairment (unifocal or multifocal) was observed. CT imaging has become a useful tool for evaluating the architecture and vertebral bone density. This study provides perspectives for the analysis of vertebral lytic lesions. In addition to showing the prevalence of lytic lesions, this study emphasizes the importance of using advanced diagnostic imaging techniques, such as CT imaging, for observing and identifying such lesions, thus directing further examinations such as bone biopsy, culture, and antibiogram or histopathology. It can be concluded that lytic lesions have a considerable incidence, impair the architecture of the vertebra and CT imaging is an effective tool for diagnosing them. Prevalence was observed in male dogs, neutered, with defined breed, of medium size, with unifocal lesion and lytic lesions associated with the discspondylitis.

Keywords


Bone diseases; Computed tomography; Dogs; Osteopenia; Spine.

Full Text:

PDF

References


ARAÚJO, J. L.; ESTEVES VEIGA, J. C.; FIGUEIREDO, E. G.; BARBOZA, V. R.; DANIEL, J. W.; PANAGOPOULOS, A. T. Management of metastatic spinal column neoplasms - an update. Revista Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões, v. 40, n. 6, p. 508-513, 2013. DOI: 10.1590/S0100-69912013000600015

BURKERT, B. A.; KERWIN, S. C.; HOSGOOD, G. L.; PECHMAN, R. D.; FONTENELLE, J. P. Signalment and clinical features of diskospondylitis in dogs: 513 cases (1980-2001). Journals - American Veterinary Medical Association, v. 227, n. 2, p. 268-275, 2005. DOI: 10.2460/javma.2005.227.268

CHEON, B.; PARKS, S.; LEE, S. K.; CHO KO; CHOI, J. Variation of canine vertebral bone architecture in computed tomography. Journal of Veterinary Science, v. 19, n. 1, p. 145-150, 2018. DOI: 10.4142/jvs.2018.19.1.145

CHEW, F. S.; KLINE, M. J. Diagnostic yield of CT-guided percutaneous aspiration procedures in suspected spontaneous infectious diskitis. Radiology, v. 218, n. 1, p. 211-214, 2001. DOI: 10.1148/radiology.218.1.r01ja06211

CLEZARDIN, P.; TETI, A. Bone metastasis: pathogenesis and therapeutic implications. Clinical & Experimental Metastasis, v. 24, n. 8, p. 599-608, 2007. DOI: 10.1007/s10585-007-9112-8

COSTA, R. C. da. Neoplasias intracranianas, espinais e de nervos periféricos. In: DALECK, C. R.; NARDI, A. B. B. de Oncologia em cães e gatos. 2. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Ed. Guanabara, 2016. p. 864-907.

COSTA, R. C. da. Princípios e aplicações da ressonância magnética. In: DEWEY, C. W.; COSTA, R. C. da. Neurologia canina e felina Guia prático. São Paulo: Ed. Guará. 2017. p. 108-167.

COSTA, R. C. da; COOK, L. B. Cystic abnormalities of the spinal cord and vertebral column. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, v. 46, n. 2, p. 277-293, 2016. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2015.10.010

CSÉBI, P.; JAKAB, C.; JÁNOSI, K.; SELLYEI, B.; IPOLYI, T.; SZABÓ, Z.; ARANY-TÓTH, A.; NÉMETH, T. Vertebral osteomyelitis and meningomyelitis caused by pasteurella canis in a dog - clinicopathological case report. Acta Veterinaria Hungarica, v. 58, n. 4, p. 413-421, 2010. DOI: 10.1556/AVet.58.2010.4.2

CULP, W. T.; OLEA-POPELKA, F.; SEFTON, J.; ALDRIDGE, C. F.; WITHROW, S. J.; LAFFERTY, M. H.; REBHUN, R. B.; KENT, M. S.; EHRHART, N. Evaluation of outcome and prognostic factors for dogs living greater than one year after diagnosis of osteosarcoma: 90 cases (1997-2008). Journals - American Veterinary Medical Association, v. 245, n. 10, p. 1141-1146, 2014. DOI: 10.2460/javma.245.10.1141

DAVIS, M. J.; DEWEY, C. W.; WALKER, M. A.; KERWIN, S. C.; MOON, M. L.; KORTZ, G.D.; KOBLIK, P. D.; MAHAFFEY, M. B.; BUDSBERG, S. C.; SLATER, M. R. Contrast radiographic findings in canine bacterial diskospondylitis: a multicenter retrospective study of 27 cases. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, v. 36, n. 1, p. 81-85, 2000. DOI: 10.5326/15473317-36-1-81

GARG, V.; KOSMAS, C.; JOSAN, E. S. et al. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy for vertebral neoplasms: a department’s experience and hybrid biopsy technique to improve yield. Neurosurgical Focus - Journal of Neurosurgery, v. 41, p. E17, 2016. DOI: 10.3171/2016.4.FOCUS1614

GARG, V.; KOSMAS, C.; YOUNG, P. C.; TOGARU, U. K.; ROBBIN, M. R. Computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy for vertebral osteomyelitis: a department’s experience. Neurosurgical Focus - Journal of Neurosurgery, v. 37, n. 2, p. E10, 2014. DOI: 10.3171/2014.6.FOCUS14134

GONZALO-ORDEN, J. M.; ALTONAGA, J. R.; ORDEN, M. A. et al. Magnetic resonance, computed tomographic and radiologic findings in a dog with discospondylitis. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound, v. 41, n. 2, p. 142-144, 2000. DOI: 10.1111/j.1740-8261.2000.tb01467.x

GUISE, T. A.; MOHAMMAD, K. S.; CLINES, G. et al. Basic mechanisms responsible for osteolytic and osteoblastic bone metastases. Clinical Cancer Research, v. 12, n. 20, p. 6213s-6216s , 2006. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-06-1007

KOEHLER, C. L.; STOVER, S. M.; LECOUTEUR, R. A.; SCHULZ, K. S.; HAWKINS, D. A. Effect of a ventral slot procedure and of smooth or positive- profile threaded pins with polymethylmethacrylate fixation on intervertebral biomechanics at treated and adjacent canine cervical vertebral motion units. American Journal of Veterinary Research, v. 66, n. 4, p. 678-687, 2005. DOI: 10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.678

LOWRIE, M. L.; PLATT, S. R.; GAROSI, L. S. Extramedullary spinal cysts in dogs. Veterinary Surgery, v. 43, n. 6, p. 650-662, 2014. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2014.12200.x

LUCAS, K.; BEHRENS, B. A; NOLTE, I.; GALINDO-ZAMORA, V.; BETANCUR, S.; ALMOHALLAMI, A.; BOUGUECHA, A.; MOSTAFA, A.; LERCH, M.; STUKENBORG-COLSMAN, C.; WEFSTAEDT, P. Comparative Investigation of Bone Mineral Density Using CT and DEXA in a Canine Femoral Model. Wiley Online Library, v. 35, n. 12, p. 2667-2672, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/jor.23574

PLATT, S., OLBY, N. J. Manual of canine and feline neurology. Gloucester: The British Small Animal Veterinary Association, 2013. 552 p.

RUOFF, C. M.; KERWIN, S. C.; TAYLOR, A. R. Diagnostic imaging of discospondylitis. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice, v. 48, n. 1, p. 85-94, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2017.08.007

SAPIERZY?SKI, R.; CZOPOWICZ, M. The animal-dependent risk factors in canine osteosarcomas. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences, v. 20, n. 2, p. 293-298, 2017. DOI: 10.1515/pjvs-2017-0035

SCHREIBER, J. J.; ANDERSON, P, A.; HSU, W. K. Use of computed tomography for assessing bone mineral. Neurosurg Focus, v. 37, n. 1, p. 1-8, 2014. DOI: 10.3171/2014.5.FOCUS1483

SEHN, J. K.; GILULA, L. A. Percutaneous needle biopsy in diagnosis and identification of causative organisms in cases of suspected vertebral osteomyelitis. European Journal of Radiology, v. 81, n. 5, p. 940-946, 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejrad.2011.01.125

SHERGILL, U.; VITKOVSKI, T.; STOFFELS, G. MELISSA, KLEIN, M.; GIMENEZ, C.; ALICE, L.; COCKER, R.; CHAU. K.; DAS, K. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of lytic bone lesions: An institution’s experience. Diagnostic Cytopathology, v. 45, n. 11, p. 989-997, 2017. DOI: 10.1002/dc.23807

SIMMONS, J. K.; HILDRETH, B. E.; SUPSAVHAD, W.; ELSHAFAE, S. M.; HASSAN, B. B.; DIRKSEN, W. P.; TORIBIO, R. E.; ROSOL, T. J. Animal models of bone metastasis. Veterinary Pathology, v. 52, n. 5, p. 827-841, 2015. DOI: 10.1177/0300985815586223

TINS, B. J.; CASSAR-PULLICINO, V. N.; LALAM, R. K. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal infection. Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, v. 18, n. 3, p. 213-222, 2007. DOI: 10.1097/RMR.0b013e3180f60c3f

TOBIAS, S.; JIMMY, S. Veterinary computed tomography. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013. p.211.

TROST, M. E.; INKELMANN, M. A.; GALIZA, G. J. Occurrence of tumours metastatic to bones and multicentric tumours with skeletal involvement in dogs. Journal of Comparative Pathology, v. 150, n. 1, p. 8-17, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2013.07.002

WEISBRODE, S. E. Osso e articulações. In: McGAVIN, M. D.; ZACHARY, J. F. Bases da patologia em veterinária. 4. ed. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier/Mosby, 2009. p. 1041-1106.

WIDMER, W. R.; THRALL, D. E. Canine and feline vertebrae. In: THRALL, D. E. Textbook of veterinary diagnostic radiology. 6th ed. Missouri: Elsevier/Mosby, 2013. p. 172-193.

WISE-MILESTONE, L.; AKENSA, M. K.; THUDIB, N.; ROSOLB, T.; HOJJAT, S. P.; GRYNPAS; M. D.; WHYNE, C. M. Evaluating the effects of mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic metastasis on vertebral bone quality in a new rat model. Journal of Orthopaedic Research, v. 30, n. 5, p. 817-823, 2012. DOI: 10.1002/jor.21577




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2019v40n5Supl1p2223

Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433 / 1679-0359
E-mail:  semina.agrarias@uel.br
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença  Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional