Atribuindo riscos e criminalizando pobres e não-brancos: a determinação de fatores de risco em 24 ferramentas atuariais do sistema de justiça criminal dos EUA

Iara Cunha Passos

Resumo


Nos EUA, a partir da década de 1920, ferramentas atuariais passaram a ser usadas na avaliação dos pedidos de liberdade condicional, a fim de prever ou estimar a possível reincidência dos requerentes. Desde então, têm sido utilizadas para melhor administrar a população sob controle correcional, calculando o risco de reincidência ou de não comparecimento à Justiça, a partir de fatores como antecedentes criminais, idade, estado civil, sexo e comportamento, com base em teorias criminológicas e técnicas de machine learning. Essas ferramentas são baseadas na aplicação de formulários e a escolha de suas questões influencia a definição dos fatores de risco. Atualmente, existem mais de 400 ferramentas em uso nas diferentes fases do sistema de justiça criminal dos EUA, entre jurisdições estaduais, nacional e de condados, principalmente após o aumento das críticas ao sistema de fiança e aos vieses dos operadores da justiça criminal. Este artigo analisa questionários de 24 ferramentas utilizadas por jurisdições dos EUA. Os principais resultados são que as ferramentas se concentram em um tipo específico de suspeito – pobres e negros – desde a sua concepção, ainda que as empresas e agências governamentais argumentem que elas sejam neutras e objetivas.

Palavras-chave


Avaliação De Risco; Ferramentas Atuariais; Estados Unidos; Sistema De Justiça Criminal

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Referências


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/2176-6665.2021v26n3p659

Direitos autorais 2022 Iara Cunha Passos

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