Increased antral follicle population and in vitro embryo production in pregnant Holstein

Ricardo Guella Droher, Fabio Luiz Bim Cavalieri, Fabio Morotti, Amanda Fonseca Zangirolamo, Marcia Aparecida Andreazzi, Marcelo Marcondes Seneda

Abstract


This study used Holstein cattle to evaluate the following: I) the productive and reproductive characteristics of cows with low, intermediate and high antral follicle counts (AFCs) that were subjected to artificial insemination (AI) and comparison of AFC variability at the time of AI (nonpregnant) and at two time points during pregnancy (30 and 60 days), and II) whether the pregnancy status and different pregnancy periods in heifers improves the efficiency at in vitro embryo production (IVEP). In study I, 75 high-milk production cows with body condition scores (BCSs) of 2.75 to 4.75 and ages of 23 to 99 months were selected. On the day of estrus, AFCs (follicles bigger, smaller 3 mm), BCS, body weight, and diameters of the dominant follicle, ovaries and the corpus luteum were evaluated. Posteriorly, AFC was monitored in pregnant cows at 30 days (n = 35) and at 60 days for comparison of AFC before pregnancy versus different periods. In study II, heifers (n = 9) with BCS of 2.5 to 3.5 and ages of 10 to 16 months were selected for ovum pick-up and an IVEP program before AI (nonpregnant) as well as at 0 to 30, 31 to 60, and bigger 60 days of pregnancy. Statistical analysis was performed using PROC GLM and binary logistic regression model (P bigger, smaller 0.05). In study I, AFC was not associated with variations in productive and reproductive parameters. However, AFCs in the low group increased following pregnancy (AI: 14.82 ± 1.36, 30 days: 23.45 ± 2.31 and 60 days: 35.18 ± 3.17 follicles). AFCs increased from AI to 60 days in the intermediate group but did not vary among time points in the high group. AFCs varied among AFC groups in AI and at 30 days of pregnancy but not at 60 days. In study II, the mean of total oocytes (17.43 ± 4.52 vs. 41.67 ± 3.79) and viable oocytes (13.77 ± 3.63 vs. 30.56 ± 3.45) increased from AI (nonpregnant) to the first 30 days of pregnancy. The mean number of embryos produced increased during pregnancy and during the first 30 days of pregnancy (4.55 ± 0.75) compared to the nonpregnant period (1.39 ± 0.85). In conclusion, pregnancy positively influences AFC, and the greatest effect is noted in low count cows. In addition, the OPU at the time of pregnancy increased the efficiency of IVEP in heifers.

Keywords


Antral follicle count; Dairy cattle; In vitro embryo production; Pregnancy.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Burns, D. S., Jimenez-Krassel, F., Ireland, J. L. H., Knight, P. G., & Ireland, J. J. (2005). Numbers of antral follicles during follicular waves in cattle: evidence for high variation among animals, very high repeatability in individuals, and an inverse association with serum follicle stimulating hormone concentrations. Biology of Reproduction, 73(1), 54-62. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.104.036277

Center, K., Dixon, D., Looney, C., & Rorie, R. (2018). Anti-mullerian hormone and follicle counts as predictors of superovulatory response and embryo production in beef cattle. Advances in Reproductive Sciences, 6(1), 22-33. doi: 10.4236/arsci.2018.61003

Claes, A., Ball, B. A., Scoggin, K. E., Roser, J. F., Woodward, E. M., Davolli, G. M., Squires, E. L., Troedsson, M. H. T. (2017). The influence of age, antral follicle count and diestrous ovulations on estrous cycle characteristics of mares. Theriogenology, 97(15), 34-40. doi: 10.1016/j.theriogenology. 2017.04.019

Coad, J., & Dunstall, M. (2011). Anatomy and physiology for midwives (3nd ed.). London: Churchill Livingstone.

Cushman, R. A., Allan, M. F., Kuehn, L. A., Snelling, W. M., Cupp, A. S., & Freetly, H. C. (2009). Evaluation of antral follicle count and ovarian morphology in crossbred beef cows: Investigation of influence of stage of the estrous cycle, age, and birth weight1, 2. Journal of Animal Science, 87(6), 1971-1980. doi: 10.2527/jas.2008-1728

Evans, A., Mossa, F., Walsh, S., Scheetz, D., Jimenez-Krassel, F., Ireland, J. L. H.,… Ireland, J. J. (2012). Effects of maternal environment during gestation on ovarian folliculogenesis and consequences for fertility in bovine offspring. Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 47(4), 31-37. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-05 31.2012.02052.x

Ferguson, J. D., Galligan, D. T., & Thomsen, N. (1994). Principal descriptors of body condition score in holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 77(9), 2695-2703. doi: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(94)77212-X

Gonçalves, G. R., Morotti, F., Colombo, A. H. B., Bonato, D. V., Bizarro-Silva, C., Rosa, C. O.,… Seneda, M. M. (2020). Influence of age and ovarian antral follicle count on the reproductive characteristics of embryo donor mares. Veterinary Record, 186(17), 564-564. doi: 10.1136/vr.105526

Ireland, J., Ward, F., Jimenez-Krassel, F., Ireland, J. L. H., Smith, G. W., Lonergan, P., & Evans, A. C. O. (2007). Follicle numbers are highly repeatable within individual animals but are inversely correlated with FSH concentrations and the proportion of good-quality embryos after ovarian stimulation in cattle. Human Reproduction, 22(6), 1687-1695. doi: 10.1093/humrep/dem071

Ireland, J. J., Smith, G. W., Scheetz, D., Jimenez-Krassel, F., Folger, J. K., Ireland, J. L. H.,… Evans, A. C. O. (2011). Does size matter in females? An overview of the impact of the high variation in the ovarian reserve on ovarian function and fertility, utility of anti-Müllerian hormone as a diagnostic marker for fertility and causes of variation in the ovarian reserve in cattle. Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 23(1), 1-14. doi: 10.1071/RD10226

Ireland, J. L. H., Scheetz, D., Jimenez-Krassel, F., Themmen, A. P. N., Ward, F., Lonergan, P.,… Ireland, J. J. (2008). Antral follicle count reliably predicts number of morphologically healthy oocytes and follicles in ovaries of young adult cattle. Biology of Reproduction, 79(6), 1219-1225. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod. 108.071670

Jimenez-Krassel, F., Folger, J. K., Ireland, J. L. H., Smith, G. W., Hou, X., Davis, J. S.,… Ireland, J. J. (2009). Evidence that high variation in ovarian reserves of healthy young adults has a negative impact on the corpus luteum and endometrium during estrous cycles in cattle. Biology of Reproduction, 80(6), 1272-1281. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.108.075093

Jimenez-Krassel, F., Scheetz, D. M., Neuder, L. M., Ireland, J. L. H., Pursley, J. R., Smith, G. W.,… Ireland, J. J. (2015). Concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone in dairy heifers is positively associated with productive herd life. Journal of Dairy Science, 98(5), 3036-3045. doi: 10.3168/jds.2014-8130




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2021v42n5p2851

Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359
E-mail: semina.agrarias@uel.br
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional