Long-term clinical complications associated with the use of polymethyl methacrylate in spinal stabilization of dogs and cats: case series

Gabriel Antonio Covino Diamante, Paulo Vinicius Tertuliano Marinho, Isis dos Santos Dal-Bó, Thales Bregadioli, Fernanda Paes, Renato Otaviano Do Rego, Bianca Fiuza Monteiro, Viviane Sanchez Galeazzi, Aline Schafrum Macedo, Cássio Ricardo Auada Ferrigno

Abstract


Vertebral and spinal cord trauma are common conditions in small animal practice and often result in vertebral fractures/luxation (VFL) with concomitant spinal cord laceration, concussion, compression, or ischemia. These lesions have several clinical presentations that may vary from moderate to severe pain and partial to total loss of motor, sensory, and visceral functions, which may result in death or euthanasia. Our purpose is to describe five cases (four dogs and one cat) of complications secondary to the use of bone cement for vertebral stabilization. The patients, between five months and four years of age and weighing between 1.4 and 12.2 kg, were referred to the Small Animal Orthopedics and Traumatology Service of the Veterinary Hospital of the College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of São Paulo. They had a history of post-operatory polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) reactions (such as drainage or cement exposure due to infection or implant failure) in periods from 9 to 18 months after undergoing spinal osteosynthesis. Surgical implant removal occurred in 80% of the patients (4/5). Complete remission was not observed in the patient with residual implants. The association of pins/screws and PMMA is a versatile osteosynthesis technique and is applicable in all spinal regions. However, delayed complications can occur, which could require additional surgical procedures. Despite the small number of cases included in this study, one can infer that complications related to the use of bone cement in spinal surgery can occur in the long term and should be highlighted during the implant choosing process for vertebral osteosynthesis in small animals.

Keywords


Bone cement; Postoperative complications; Adverse effects; Spinal column.

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2020v41n5supl1p2453

Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433 / 1679-0359
E-mail:  semina.agrarias@uel.br
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