Fermentation times and feed additives improve the quality of olive bagasse silage

Neliton Flores Kasper, Leonardo Ereno Tadielo, Othon Dalla Colletta Altermann, Fabiane Quevedo da Rosa, Antônio Dias Echeverria, Eduardo Bohrer de Azevedo, Luciane Rumpel Segabinazzi, Deise Dalazen Castagnara

Abstract


This research aimed to measure the microbiological, chemical composition profile and fermentative characteristics during storage of fresh olive bagasse, in natura and incorporated with corn, soybean and rice brans, respectively. The experimental design was completely randomized, with the plots constituting the four main treatments (olive bagasse in natura or with added corn, soybean and rice brans, respectively), and the subplots allocated the three sampling times, which corresponded to time zero (at the ensilage moment) and 28 and 56 days of ensilage. The fermentative characteristics (dry matter content [DM], pH and ammoniacal nitrogen [NH3-N], microbiological profile (populations of filamentous fungi, lactic acid bacteria, enterobacteria and Clostridia) and chemical composition profile (mineral matter, organic matter, crude protein [CP], ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose) were determined. The corn grain and rice meal treatments, which demonstrated pH 4.08 and 3.96 at 28 days of fermentation, respectively, provided the best fermentation profile. After storage for 56 days, the samples with added soybean and rice meal reached the highest levels of CP (166.15 and 93.78 g kg-1 DM), respectively. Increasing the storage period reduced the pH of the obtained silages but increased the losses of DM, NH3-N and contributed to the losses of some nutrients. Rice meal and corn grain have been recommended to be used as additives in olive bagasse storage. However, the choice of additives studied is dependent on their commercial availability in each region.

Keywords


Cellulose; Crude protein; Microbiology; Nutritional value; Olea europaea.

Full Text:

PDF

References


ABAZI, U.; LORITE, I. J.; CÁRCELES, B.; MARTÍNEZ RAYA, A.; DURÁN, V. H.; FRANCIA, J. R.; GÓMEZ, J. A. WABOL: a conceptual water balance model for analyzing rainfall water use in olive orchards under different soil and cover crop management strategies. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Amsterdam, v. 91, n. 1, p. 35-48, 2013. DOI: /10.1016/j.compag.2012.11.010

ALLI, I.; FAIRBAIRN, R.; BAKER, B. E.; GARCIA, G. The effects of ammonia on the fermentation of chopped sugarcane. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Amsterdam, v. 9, n. 4, p. 291-299, 1983. DOI: 10.1016/0377-8401(83)90022-6

AZEVÊDO, J. A. G.; VALADARES FILHO, S. C.; PINA, D. S.; DETMANN, E.; VALADARES, R. F. D.; PEREIRA, L. G. R.; SOUZA, N. K. P.; COSTA E SILVA, L. F. Consumo, digestibilidade total, produção de proteína microbiana e balanço de nitrogênio em dietas com subprodutos de frutas para ruminantes. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Viçosa, MG, v. 40, n. 5, p. 1052-1060, 2011.

BERNARDES, T. F.; REIS, R. A.; MOREIRA, A. L. Fermentative and microbiological profile of Marandu-grass ensiled with citrus pulp pellets. Scientia Agricola, Piracicaba, v. 62, n. 3, p. 214-220, 2005. DOI: 10.1590/S0103-90162005000300003

BISWAS, R.; SAHAI, V.; MISHRA, S.; BISARIA, V. S. Bioprocess strategies for enhanced production of xylanase by Melanocarpus albomyces IITD3A on agro-residual extract. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, Amsterdam, v. 110, n. 6, p. 702-708, 2010. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiosc.2010.07.013

BOLSEN, K. K.; LIN, C.; BRENT, B. E.; FEYERHERM, A. M.; URBAN, J. E.; AIMUTIS, W. R. Effect of silage additives on the microbial succession and fermentation process of alfalfa and corn silages. Journal of Dairy Science, Knoxville, v. 75, n. 11, p. 3066-3083, 1992. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(92)78070-9

CHIOFALO, B.; LIOTTA, L.; ZUMBO, A.; CHIOFALO, V. Administration of olive cake for ewe feeding: effect on milk yield and composition. Small Ruminant Research, Amsterdam, v. 55, n. 1-3, p. 169-176, 2004. DOI: 10.1016/j.smallrumres.2003.12.011

DERMECHE, S.; NADOUR, M.; LARROCHE, C.; MOULTI-MATI, F.; MICHAUD, P. Olive mill wastes: biochemical characterizations and valorization strategies. Process Biochemistry, Amsterdam, v. 48, n. 10, p. 1532-1552, 2013. DOI: 10.1016/j.procbio.2013.07.010

FERREIRA, D. F. Sisvar: a computer statistical analysis system. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, Lavras, v. 35, n. 6, p. 1039-1042, 2011. DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542011000600001

GIGER-REVERDIN, S. Review of the main methods of cell wall estimation: interest and limits for ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Amsterdam, v. 55, n. 3-4, p. 295-334, 1995. DOI: 10.1016/0377-8401(95)00791-K

GONÇALVES, J. A. G.; ZAMBOM, M. A.; FERNANDES, T.; MESQUITA, E. E.; SCHIMIDT, E.; JAVORSKI, C. R.; CASTAGNARA, D. D. Composição químico-bromatológica e perfil de fermentação da silagem de resíduo úmido de fécula de mandioca. Bioscience Journal, Uberlandia, v. 30, n. 2, p. 502-511, 2014.

KONDO, M.; HIRANO, Y.; KITA, K.; JAYANEGARA, A.; YOKOTA, H.-O. Fermentation characteristics, tannin contents and in vitro ruminal degradation of green tea and black tea by-products ensiled at different temperatures. Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, Gwanak-gu, v. 27, n. 7, p. 937-945, 2014. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.2013.13387

MARTINS, A. S.; VIEIRA P. F.; BERCHIELLI, T. T.; PRADO, I. N.; LEMPP, B.; PAULA, M. C. Degradabilidade in situ e observações microscópicas de volumosos em bovinos suplementados com enzimas fibrolíticas exógenas. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Viçosa, MG, v. 36, n. 6, p. 1927-1936, 2007.

McDONALD, P.; HENDERSON, A. R.; HERON, S. J. E. The biochemistry of silage. 2th ed. Marlou: Chalcombe Publications, 1991. 340 p.

MOLINA-ALCAIDE, E.; YAÑEZ-RUIZ, D. R. Potential use of olive by-products in ruminant feeding: a review. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Amsterdam, v. 147, n. 1-3, p. 247-264, 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2007.09.021

MOTA, Á. D. S.; ROCHA JÚNIOR, V. R.; SOUZA, A. S.; REIS, S. T.; TOMICH, T. R.; CALDEIRA, L. A.; MENEZES, G. C. C.; COSTA, M. D. Perfil de fermentação e perdas na ensilagem de diferentes frações da parte aérea de quatro variedades de mandioca. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Viçosa, MG, v. 40, n. 7, p. 1466-1473, 2011.

MUCK, R. E. Silage microbiology and its control through additives. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Viçosa, MG, v. 39, n. 1, p. 183-191, 2010. DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982010001300021

NASOPOULOU, C.; ZABETAKIS, I. Agricultural and aquacultural potential of olive pomace: a review. Journal of Agricultural Science, Toronto, v. 5, n. 7, p. 116-127, 2013.

NEFZAOUI, A. Valorisation des sous-produits de l'olivier. Options Méditerranéennes, Túnisia, v. 1, n. 16, p. 101-108, 1991.

NERES, M. A.; ZAMBOM, M. A.; FERNANDES, T.; CASTAGNARA, D. D.; RODRIGUES, J. F. H.; TAFFAREL, L. E.; JAVORSKI, C. R.; POZZA, M. S. S. Microbiological profile and aerobic stability of Tifton 85 bermudagrass silage with different additives. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Viçosa, MG, v. 42, n. 6, p. 381-387, 2013. DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982013000600001

NIAOUNAKIS, M.; HALVADAKIS, C. P. Olive processing waste management literature review and patent survey. 2th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2006. 498 p. (Waste Management series, 5).

OLADOSU, Y.; RAFII, M. Y.; ABDULLAH, N.; MAGAJI, U.; HUSSIN, G.; RAMLI, A.; MIAH, G. Fermentation quality and additives: a case of rice straw silage. BioMed Research International, London, v. 2016, article no. 7985167, p. 14, 2016. DOI: 10.1155/2016/7985167

RIDWAN, R.; RUSMANA, I.; WIDYASTUTI, Y.; WIRYAWAN, K. G.; PRASETYA, B.; SAKAMOTO, M.; OHKUMA, M. Fermentation characteristics and microbial diversity of tropical grass-legumes silages. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, Gwanak-gu, v. 28, n. 4, p. 511-518, 2015. DOI: 10.5713/ajas.14.0622

SANSOUCY, R.; ALIBES, X.; BERGE, P. H.; MARTILOTTI, F.; NEFZAOUI, A.; ZOÏOPOULOS, P. Olive by-products for animal feed. Rome: FAO, 1985. (FAO animal production and health paper, 43).

SARATALE, G. D.; SARATALE, R. G.; OH, S. E. Production and characterization of multiple cellulolytic enzymes by isolated Streptomyces sp. MDS. Biomass and Bioenergy, Amsterdam, v. 47, n. 1, p. 302-315, 2012. DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.09.030

SILVA, D. J.; QUEIROZ, A. C. Análise de alimentos: métodos químicos e biológicos. 3th ed. Viçosa, MG: Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 2009. 235 p.

SILVA, N.; JUNQUEIRA, V. C. A.; SILVEIRA, N. F. A.; TANIWAKI, M. H.; SANTOS, R. F. S.; GOMES, R. A. R.; OKAZAKI, M. M. Manual de métodos de análise microbiológica de alimentos. 3th ed. São Paulo: Varela, 2007. 536 p.

SOUZA, L. C.; ZAMBOM, M. A.; POZZA, M. S. S.; NERES, M. A.; RADIS, A. C.; BORSATTI, L.; CASTAGNARA, D. D.; GUNDT, S. Development of microorganisms during storage of wet brewery waste under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Viçosa, MG, v. 41, n. 1, p. 188-193, 2012. DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982012000100027

VALADARES FILHO, S. C.; MACHADO, P. A. S.; CHIZZOTTI, M. L.; AMARAL, H. F.; MAGALHÃES, K. A.; ROCHA JUNIOR, V. R.; CAPELLE, E. R. Tabelas brasileiras de composição de alimentos para bovinos. 3th ed. Viçosa, MG: Universidade Federal de Viçosa, 2008. 502 p.

VAN SOEST, P. J. Nutritional ecology of the ruminant. 2th ed. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994. 476 p.

VAN SOEST, P. J.; ROBERTSON, J. B.; LEWIS, B. A. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, Madison, v. 74, n. 10, p. 3583-3597, 1991. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2

WEINBERG, Z. G.; CHEN, Y.; WEINBERG, P. Ensiling olive cake with and without molasses for ruminant feeding. Bioresource Technology, New York, v. 99, n. 6, p. 1526-1529, 2008. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.04.022




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2019v40n3p1263

Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359
E-mail: semina.agrarias@uel.br
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional