Metabolizable energy levels in diets with high lysine for growing and finishing pigs

Soraia Viana Ferreira, Lívia Maria dos Reis Barbosa, Camila Schultz Marcolla, Marcos Henrique Soares, Dante Teixeira Valente Júnior, Gustavo Amorim Rodrigues, Alysson Saraiva

Abstract


The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of metabolizable energy (ME) levels in diets with high digestible lysine concentration on performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows from 95 to 158 days of age. Eighty commercial hybrid barrows (50 ± 1.82 kg) selected for lean meat deposition, were assigned to four dietary treatments (3,150, 3,235, 3,320, and 3,400 kcal EM kg-1) in a randomized design with 10 replicate pens per treatment and two pigs per pen. From 95 to 116 days of age, we observed no effects of ME on final body weight (FBW), average daily gain (ADG), metabolizable energy intake (MEI), and feed conversion (F: G). Average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased linearly with increasing ME levels (? = 5.79961 - 0.00096790X - r2 = 0.89). From 95 to 137 days of age, no effects of ME were observed on final body weight (FBW), average daily gain (ADG), metabolizable energy intake (MEI), and feed conversion (F: G). Average daily feed intake (ADFI) decreased linearly with increasing ME (?= 6.1176 - 0.001X - r2= 0.97). From 95 to 158 days, of age no effects of ME were observed on FBW and ADG. Dietary ME influenced the ADFI and F: G, which decreased linearly with increasing ME concentrations (?= 8.12951 - 0.00149X - r2= 0.99; ?= 6.0914 - 0.001X - r² = 0.75, respectively). There was a linear increase in loin eye area (LEA) with increasing ME (? = - 29.851 + 0.0207 X - r² = 0.87). Backfat thickness, pH, and temperature, measured at different times after slaughter (0 min, 45 min, 3 h, and 24 h), were not affected by dietary ME. The level of ME also did not affect the meat quality parameters Color L*, Color a*, Color b*, Warner-Bratzler shear force, thaw water losses, cooking water losses, sum of water losses, intramuscular fat content, and TBARS. Diets with 3,400 kcal kg-1 ME, corresponding to 2.75, 2.57, and 2.31 g digestible lysine/Mcal of ME for pigs from 95 to 116, 116 to 137, and 95 to 158 days of age, respectively, resulted in best performance and carcass traits, without negative effects on meat quality.

Keywords


Carcass traits; Nutritional requirement; Pork quality.

Full Text:

PDF

References


AMERICAN MEAT SCIENCE ASSOCIATION. Research guidelines for cookery, sensory evaluation, and instrumental tenderness measurements of meat. Champaign: American Meat Science Association, 2016. 106 p.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 18th ed. Washington: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 2007. 244 p.

BEAULIEU, A. D.; WILLIAMS, N. H.; PATIENCE, J. F. Responses to dietary digestible energy concentration in growing pigs fed cereal grain-based diets. Journal of Animal Science, Champaign, v. 87, n. 3, p. 965-976, 2009.

BRIDI, A. M.; SILVA, C. A. Métodos de avaliação da carcaça e da carne suína. Londrina: Midiograf, 2007. v. 1, 97 p.

CHU, L. C.; ZHANG, G. J.; CAI, C. J.; MAO, X. B.; QIAO, S. Y. Effect of dietary energy density on performance and lean deposition of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, Dubai, v. 11, n. 5, p. 665-675, 2012.

CISNEROS, F.; ELLIS, M.; MILLER, K. D.; NOVAKOFSKI, J.; WILSON, E. R.; MCKEITH, F. K. Comparison of transverse and longitutinal real-time ultrasound scans for prediction of lean cut yields and fat-free lean content in live pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Champaign, v. 74, n. 11, p. 2566-2576, 1996.

DE LA LLATA, M.; DITZ, S. S.; TOKACH, M. D.; GOODBAND, R. D.; NELSSEN, J. L.; LOUGHIN, T. M. Effects of dietary fat on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs reared in a commercial environment. Journal of Animal Science, Champaign, v. 79, n. 10, p. 2643-2650, 2001.

DUNSHEA, F. R.; D’SOUZA, D. N.; PETHICK, D. W.; HARPER, G. S.; WARNER, R. D. Effects of dietary factors and other metabolic modifiers on quality and nutritional value of meat. Meat Science, Illinois, v. 71, n. 1, p. 8-38, 2005.

ETTLE, T.; ROTH-MAIER, D. A.; ROTH, F. X. Effect of apparent ileal digestible lysine to energy ratio on performance of finishing pigs at different dietary metabolizable energy levels. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, Berlin, v. 87, n. 7-8, p. 269-279, 2003.

FORSSTEN, S. D.; KORCZY?SKA, M. Z.; ZWIJSEN, R. M. L.; NOORDMAN, W. H.; MADETOJA, M.; OUWEHAND, A. C. Changes in satiety hormone concentrations and feed intake in rats in response to lactic acid bacteria. Appetite, Finland, v. 71, n. 12, p. 16-21, 2013.

GONÇALVES, L. M. P.; KIEFER, C.; SOUZA, K. M. R.; MARÇAL, D. A.; ABREU, R. C.; SILVA, A. M. P. S.; ALENCAR, S. A. S. Níveis de energia líquida para suínos machos castrados em terminação. Revista Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v. 45, n. 3, p. 464-469, 2015.

HENCKEL, P.; KARLSSON, A.; JENSEN, M. T.; OKSBJERG, N.; PETERSEN, J. S. Metabolic conditions in porcine longissimus muscle immediately pre-slaughter and its influence on peri- and post mortem energy metabolism. Meat Science, Illinois, v. 62, n. 2, p. 145-155, 2002.

HINSON, R. B.; WIEGAND, B. R.; RITTER, M. J.; ALLEE, G. L.; CARR, S. N. Impact of dietary energy level and ractopamina on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Champaign, v. 89, n. 11, p. 3725-3579, 2011.

IVERSEN, P.; HENCKEL, P.; LARSEN, L. M.; MONLLAO, S.; MØLLER, A. J. Tenderisation of pork as affected by degree of cold-induced shortening. Meat Science, Illinois, v. 40, n. 2, p. 171-181, 1995.

JIN, Y. H.; OH, H. K.; PIAO, L. G.; JANG, S. K.; CHOI, Y. H.; HEO, P. S.; JANG, Y. D.; KIM, Y. Y. Effect of dietary lysine restriction and energy density on performance, nutrient digestibility and meat quality in finishing pigs. Asian-Australia Journal Animal Science, Seoul, v. 23, n. 9, p. 1213-1220, 2010.

KERR, B. J.; SOUTHERN, J. J.; BIDNER, T. D.; FRIESEN, K. G.; EASTER, R. A. Influence of dietary protein level, amino acid supplementation, and dietary energy levels on growing-finishing pig performance and carcass composition. Journal of Animal Science, Champaign, v. 81, n. 12, p. 3075-3087, 2003.

KIM, T. W.; KIM, C. W.; YANG, M. R.; NO, G. R.; KIM, S. W.; KIM, S. Pork quality traits according to port-mortem pH and temperature in Berkshire. Korean Journal of food Science of Animal Resources, Gangnam-Gu, v. 36, n. 1, p. 29-36, 2016.

LÉTOURNEAU-MONTMINY, M. P.; NARCY, A.; LESCOAT, P.; MAGNIN, M.; BERNIER, J. F.; SAUVANT, D.; JONDREVILLE, C.; POMAR, C. Modeling the fate of dietary phosphorus in the digestive tract of growing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Champaign, v. 89, n. 11, p. 3596-3611, 2011.

LI, P.; ZENG, Z.; WANG, D.; XUE, L.; ZHANG, R.; PIAO, X. Effects of the standardized ileal digestible lysine to metabolizable energy ratio on performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology, London, v. 3, n. 1, p. 1-9, 2012.

LIU, Z. H.; YANG, F. Y.; KING, L. J.; LAI, C. H.; PIAO, X. S.; GU, Y. H.; OU, X. Q. Effects of dietary energy density on growth, carcass quality and mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and hormone-sensitive lipase in finishing pigs. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Science, Gwanak-gu, v. 20, n. 10, p. 1578-1593, 2017.

MAIN, R. G.; DRITZ, S. S.; TOKACH, M. D.; NELSSEN, J. L. Determining an optimum lysine:calorie ratio for barrows and gilts in a commercial finishing facility. Journal of animal Science, Champaign, v. 86, n. 9, p. 2190-2207, 2008.

MATEOS, G. G.; SELL, J. L. Influence of carbohydrate and supplemental fat source on the metabolizable energy of the diet. Poultry Science, v. 59, p. 2129–2135, 1980.

MATTHEWS, J. O.; HIGBIE, A. D.; SOUTHERN, L. L.; COOMBS, D. F.; BIDNER, T. D.; ODGAARD, R. L. Effect of chromium propionate and metabolizable energy on growth, carcass traits, and pork quality of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Champaign, v. 81, n. 1, p. 191-196, 2003.

MENG, Q. W.; YAN, L.; AO, X.; ZHOU, T. X.; WANG, J. P.; LEE, J. H.; KIM, I. H. Influence of probiotics in different energy and nutrient density diets on performance, nutrient digestibility, meat quality, and blood characteristics in growth growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, Champaign, v. 88, n. 10, p. 3320-3326, 2010.

MEZA, S. K. L.; NUNES, R. V.; TSUTSUMI, C. Y.; VIEITES, F. M.; SCHERER, C.; HENZ, J. R.; SILVA, I. M.; BAYERLE, D. F. Níveis de energia metabolizável e lisina digestível sobre a composição e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, Londrina, v. 36, n. 2, p. 1079-1090, 2015.

NAGAKI, S.; GHIRLANDO, R.; WHITE, J. F.; GVOZDENOVIC-JEREMIC, J.; NORTHUP, J. K.; GRISSHAMMER, R. Modulation of the interaction between neurotensin receptor NTS1 and Gq protein by lipid. Journal of Molecular Biology. London, v. 417, n. 2, p. 95-111, 2012.

PAIANO, D.; MOREIRA, I.; FURLAN, A. C.; CARVALHO, P. L. O.; KURODA JUNIOR, I. S.; MARTINS, E. N. Relações treonina:lisina digestíveis e níveis de energia líquida para suínos em crescimento e terminação. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Viçosa, MG, v. 37, n. 12, p. 2147-2156, 2008.

REZENDE, W. O.; DONZELE, J. L.; OLIVEIRA, R. F. M.; ABREU, M. L.; FERREIRA, A. S.; SILVA, F. C. O.; APOLÔNIO, L. R. Níveis de energia metabolizável mantendo a relação lisina digestível:caloria em rações para suínos machos castrados em terminação. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Viçosa, MG, v. 35, n. 3, p. 1101-1106, 2006.

ROSMINI, M. R.; PERLO, F.; PÉREZ-ALVAREZ, J. A.; PAGÁN-MORENO, M. J.; GAGO-GAGO, A.; LÓPEZ-SANTOVEÑA, F.; ARANDA-CATALÁ, V. TBA test by na extractive method applied to pate. Meat Science, Illinois, v. 42, n. 1, p. 103-110, 1996.

ROSTAGNO, H. S.; ALBINO, L. F. T.; DONZELE, J. L.; GOMES, P. C.; OLIVEIRA, R. F.; LOPES, D. C.; FERREIRA, A. S.; BARRETO, S. L. T.; EUCLIDES, R. F. Tabelas brasileiras para aves e suínos: composição de alimentos e exigências nutricionais. 3. ed. Viçosa, MG: UFV, Departamento de Zootecnia, 2011. 252 p.

SAMPAIO, C. A. P.; CRISTANI, J.; DUBIELA, J. A.; BOFF, C. E.; OLIVEIRA, M. A. Avaliação do ambiente térmico em instalação para crescimento e terminação de suínos utilizando os índices de conforto térmico nas condições tropicais. Ciência Rural, Santa Maria, v. 34, n. 3, p. 785-790, 2004.

SARCINELLI, M. F.; SILVA, L. C.; VENTURINI, K. S. Características da carne suína. Vitória Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, UFES, 2007. 7 p.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS SYSTEM INSTITUTE - SAS Institute. SAS user’s guide: statistics. 5th ed. Cary: SAS Institute, 1985.

SUAREZ-BELLOCH, J.; SANZ, M. A.; JOY, M.; LATORRE, M. A. Impact of increasing dietary energy level during the finishing period on growth performance, pork quality and fatty acid profile in heavy pigs. Meat Science, Illinois, v. 93, n. 4, p. 796-801, 2013.

TRINDADE NETO, M. A.; MOREIRA, J. A.; BERTO, D. A. Energia metabolizável e lisina digestível para suínos na fase de crescimento, criados em condições de segregação sanitária. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Viçosa, MG, v. 34, n. 6, p. 1980-1989, 2005.

ZENG, Z.; YU, B.; MAO, X.; CHEN, D. W. Effects of dietary digestible energy concentration on growth, meat quality, and PPARY gene expression in muscle and adipose tissues of Rongchang piglets. Meat Science, Illinois, v. 90, n. 1, p. 66-70, 2012.

ZHANG, G.; YI, X.; CHU, L.; LU, N.; HTOO, J.; QIAO, S. Effects of dietary net energy density and standardized ileal digestible lysine: net energy ratio on the performance and carcass characteristic of growing-finishing pigs fed low crude protein supplemented with crystalline amino acids diets. Agricultural Sciences in China, Beijing, v. 4, n. 4, p. 602-610, 2011.

ZOU, T.; MAO, X.; YU, B.; HE, J.; ZHENG, P.; YU, J.; CHEN, D. Effects of dietary energy density and apparent ileal digestible lysine:digestible energy ratio on growth performance, meat quality, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) gene expression of muscle and adipose tissues in Landrace Rongchang crossbred pigs. Livestock Science, Amsterdam, v. 167, n.1, p. 219-226, 2014.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2019v40n1p365

Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359
E-mail: semina.agrarias@uel.br
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional