Composition of phenolic acids content in apple (Malus sp) pomace

Márcia Christina Soares, Érika Taciana Ribeiro, Eugênia Marta Kuskoski, Luciano Valdemiro Gonzaga, Alessandro Lima, Jorge Mancini Filho, Roseane Fett

Abstract


The present work aimed the study of phenolic acids composition in apple pomace of Gala and Fuji cultivars. Phenolic acids were fractionated in phenolic acids, esterified and insoluble and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sixteen phenolic acids were identified in apple pomace samples. Total phenolic acids in apple pomace from Gala and Fuji cultivars were, in dry weight, 93.94 mg/ g and 68.38 mg/g, respectively. Content of free phenolic acids in apple pomace from Gala cultivar was 29.11 mg/g and the following acids were identified: salicylic, protocatequinic, quinic, p-coumaric, gallic, propylgallate and synapic. Content of free phenolic acids in apple pomace from Fuji cultivar was 16.03 mg/g and the following acids were identified: salicylic, protocatequinic, gallic, ferulic and sinapic. Salicylic was the predominant free phenolic acids found in both cultivars, consisting of 91.67% and 63.57% of the free phenolic acids in Gala and Fuji cultivars, respectively. Chlorogenic acid (1.147 mg/g) was found only in apple pomace from Fuji cultivar. Content of esterified phenolic acids in apple pomace from Gala and Fuji cultivars were 53.75 mg/g and 48.29 mg/g, respectively. It was verified that the predominant esterified phenolic acid in pomace from apple Gala is derived from salicylic acid (52.76 mg/g). Acids derived from gallic acid (0.175 mg/g), propylgallate acid (0.198 mg/g), ferulic acid (0.159 mg/g) and sinapic acid (0.140 mg/g) were also found in Gala cultivar. Regarding to pomace from cultivar Fuji, the main esterified phenolic acid found is also derived from salicylic acid (47.42 mg/g) followed by gallic acid (0.270 mg/g), benzoic acid (0.194 mg/g) and sinapic acid (0.115 mg/g). Content of insoluble phenolic acids in apple pomace from Gala and Fugi cultivars were, in dry weight, 11.08 mg/g and 4.05 mg/g, respectively. Insoluble phenolic acids derived from salicylic acid were found in higher concentrations in apple pomace from both cultivars.

Keywords


Phenolic acids; Apple pomace.



DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5433/1679-0359.2008v29n2p339

Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359
E-mail: semina.agrarias@uel.br
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional