Nonunion fractures in small animals - A literature review

Jaqueline França dos Santos, Cássio Ricardo Auada Ferrigno, Ísis dos Santos Dal-Bó, Daniela Fabiana Izquierdo Caquías


Bone nonunion is observed when the healing of a fracture fails and all processes of biologic repair cease. It is a frequent complication during fracture treatment in small animals. Nonunions are classified as viable or nonviable, and most cases result from technical error (e.g., inadequate or inappropriate choice of the type of stabilization), poor vascularization, excessive distance between the fragments, infection, and systemic disease, or local as well as idiopathic factors. The diagnosis is made when there is no radiographic evidence of bone healing. This condition cannot be treated conservatively; rather, nonunions require surgical intervention involving removal of implants (besides exuberant callus removal), proper alignment, and compression of the fracture site. As bone nonunion remains a common problem in clinical practice, the objective of this paper is to review the pathophysiology and methods for treating of the condition.


Fracture; Nonunion; Radius and ulna; Dogs.

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Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional