Kinetics in vitro of ruminal fermentation of cocoa husks subjected to alkali and heat treatment

Flávio Moreira de Almeida, José Augusto Gomes Azevêdo, Ícaro dos Santos Cabral, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira, Gherman Garcia Leal de Araújo, Abdon Santos Nogueira, Lígia Lins Souza, Brena Santos Oliveira, Pablo Almeida Sampaio Vieira


The objective was to evaluate the parameters of kinetics of ruminal fermentation of cocoa husks (CH) treated with alkali and thermal agents, using the semi-automated in vitro gas production technique. Cocoa husks samples were subjected to alkali and thermal methods (effect of time of exposure) treatment, as follows: control; alkaline treatment with calcium hydroxide ((Ca(OH)2) and calcium oxide (CaO), both doses of 15.0; 30.0 and 45.0 g kg-1 of CH; heat treatment in an autoclave at a pressure of 1.23 kg cm-2 (15 psi) and a temperature of 123°C for 30, 60 and 90 minutes. For statistical analysis, orthogonal contrasts and regression. The degradation rate and the final volume of gases of non-fiber carbohydrates decreased with the addition of Ca(OH)2 and CaO, however, for fibrous carbohydrates effects were positive. For each percentage of Ca(OH)2 and CaO included, it is estimated an increase of 5.74 and 2.9% in the final volume of the fiber, respectively. When the heat treatment, a decrease in all parameters was estimated. For each minute of exposure to heat, there was a decrease of 0.4% in total final volume of gases. The alkali treatment can be an efficient alternative for improving the digestibility of fibrous fractions of CH.


Alternative feed; Chemical treatment; Residue; Ruminants.

Full Text:



Semina: Ciênc. Agrár.
Londrina - PR
E-ISSN 1679-0359
DOI: 10.5433/1679-0359
Este obra está licenciado com uma Licença Creative Commons Atribuição-NãoComercial 4.0 Internacional